Hypertension and nephrology

[Population based study of hypertension in Hungary - 2012 Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Program of Hungary 201-2020]

BARNA István, DAIKI Tenno, DANKOVICS Gergely, KÉKES Ede, KISS István

MARCH 22, 2013

Hypertension and nephrology - 2013;17(01)

[Background: The year 2011 saw the continuation of Hungary’s greatest and to date most comprehensive health screening programme started in 2010. The aim of the screening programme established according to the directives of the European Union with the cooperation of more than forty professional organisations is the preservation of the health of the population, the prevention of illnesses and the improvement of the general health status. The programme contributes to the prevention of coronary diseases by passing on knowledge concerning healthy nutrition and guidelines to help the establishment of a health-conscious lifestyle. Partecipants and methods: In the Comprehensive Health Tests Programme of Hungary, the examinations, among them coronary examinations covering the fields of cardiology and hypertension, take place in a specially furnished lorry. The results of the examinations of the people who have presented themselves for the tests (n=19,814) have been evaluated. In the Comprehensive Health Tests Programme of Hungary a total of 10,444 (52.7%) women and 9,370 (47.3%) men were tested at 332 locations. Although the tests were free for all adults, predominantly persons between the ages of 26 and 55 presented themselves. The average age of women was 42 years and that of the men was 40 years. Results: Upon data processing with the help of a query, 28% of the participants reported suffering from hypertension disease. Measurement of the blood pressure was carried out in each case with validated equipment and by qualified medical staff. Based on the data, it can be observed that while among men hypertension tends to occur in larger numbers at a younger age, the tendency is reversed at ages above 45 years, where hypertension is more frequent among women. Among women, the state of normotonia was most frequent up to the age of 45 and stage 1 hypertension became most frequent from the age of 46 onwards. It must be noted, however, that stage 3 hypertension was already present in 1.7% of women of 26 years of age, and the frequency of this category increased to 6% from the age of 46 onwards. The average systolic blood pressure measured among men exceeded the upper limit of the normal range for all age groups. The average systolic blood pressure measured among women was in the normal range up to the age of 55 years and only moved to the pathological range from the age of 56 onwards. The diastolic blood pressure levels were in the normal range for both sexes (with the exception of the age group 46-55 of the men, where it exceeded the upper limit of the normal range by a minimal extent). Among the men, stage 1 hypertension was the most frequent status for all age groups; blood pressures above 140/90 were measured for 39% of the subjects from the age of 18 onwards. The distribution of this did not vary significantly with the increase of age. It must be mentioned here too, that stage 3 hypertension became more frequent with age, and that it was observed in more than 11% of the patients above 56 years of age. The correlation between abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, blood sugar level and the measured blood pressure values was unambiguously ascertainable. In case of simultaneous presence of diabetes and hypertension (women, n=344 and men, n=303), blood pressures above 140/90Hgmm were 2-3 times more frequent for both sexes than without the presence of diabetes. Discussion: Thanks to the vast information obtained through the programme, a comprehensive picture has been drawn up about Hungary’s present health status not only on a regional or cross sectional level, but as it was described in the programme, too. ]



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[Prognostic role of arterial stiffness in IgA nephropathy]

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[Background: Arterial stiffness has a prognostic role in chronic cardiovascular diseases. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) determined by the carotid-femoral pulse detection is accepted as a gold standard method. Further diagnostic procedures are in use to assess the arterial stiffness including the finger photoplethysmography. The prognostic role of this method is limited in chronic renal diseases. The goal of our investigation was to determine the prognostic significance of the stiffness index (SIDVP) measured by the photoplethysmographic method in IgA nephropathy. Patients and methods: One hundred and three histologically proved IgA nephropathy patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1-4 were investigated (67 male, 36 female, 45 ± 11 years) and followed for an average 65 (6-107) months. The stiffness index was determined by the volume alteration of the digital artery during the cardiac cycle (Pulse Trace system, Micro Medical, Gilingham, Kent, UK). The primary combined end point was total mortality, major cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular procedure, for example revascularisation) plus achieving end stage renal disease. The secondary end points were cardiovascular and renal end points alone. Results: The patients with increased stiffness index (> 10 m/s) had significantly more combined primary end point events (10/60 vs. 19/43, P = 0.015). In case of the secondary end points the renal end points were significantly more frequent in patients with higher stiffness index. Stiffness index has also proved to be an independent predictor on survival from other cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, lipid disturbances and decrease of renal function) using the Cox regression model in IgA nephropathy. Every 1 m/s increase in stiffness index resulted a 17% gain in the occurrence of the combined primary end point. Conclusions: Stiffness index determined by finger photoplethysmography is an eligible parameter to assess the prognosis in IgA nephropathy. Increased stiffness index in IgA nephropathy seems to be a good prognostic tool for identification of higher risk patients.]


[Relationship of cardiovascular risk factors and bone status in a large adult population of the Balaton Region]


[BACKROUND - Numerous international studies have investigated the relationship between bone metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results are controversial, there are those proving an increasing effect of diabetes on bone density but we know data that prove the opposite results. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between bone density, obesity and carbohydrate metabolism on a large Hungarian population. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The data from a large population screening (n=6287, mean age 56±13 years, men: n=1561, women: n=4726), carried out in the Balaton Region, Hungary, were analyzed (anthropometry, blood glucose and total cholesterol, blood pressure, calcaneus ultrasound T-score). RESULTS - Analyzing the relationship between type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis/osteopenia, we found, that the prevalence of osteopenia is significantly higher in diabetic women between 50-60 years of age than that of normal glucose tolerance, (50 vs. 36.34%, OR: 1.711, 95% CI: 1.076-2.722, p<0.022), however in different age groups and in males there were no significant differences, similar to the metabolic syndrome which did not influence the prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia. In normal weight (male and female) diabetic population over 60 years of age, the frequency of osteoporosis/ ostepenia was much higher, than in the normal weight normal glucose tolerance group, which difference was borderline-significant in the case of osteoporosis (63.63 vs. 26.2%, OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 0.969-7.6, p=0.054), and did not reach it with osteopenia (53.38 vs. 43.31%, p=0.359). In the same age group, within the “all glucose intolerant” and “all normal glucose tolerance” groups the prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia did not differ. We found significant correlation between BMI and T score only in women and it was strongest in age group of over 70 years (r=+0.23, p<0.001). CONCLUSION - Our data suggest that the increased bone density often measured in type 2 diabetic patients is actually the consequence of the accompanying obesity, and not of diabetes itself, which is rather a risk factor for bone loss.]

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[Measurement of coronary artery calcification in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus using dual-source, multi-slice computed tomography]


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