Hypertension and nephrology

[News of the Hungarian Society of Nephrology]

FEBRUARY 28, 2011

Hypertension and nephrology - 2011;15(01)

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Scylla and Charybdis - the treatment of hypertension]

RADÓ János

Hypertension and nephrology

[The effect of antihypertensive drugs on central blood pressure]

PÁLL Dénes, KOMONYI Éva, LENGYEL Szabolcs, PARAGH György, KATONA Éva

[It is well known, that there is a difference between peripheral and central systolic and pulse pressure. As the pressure wave travels distally from the heart, there is a significant increase, which is called pressure amplification. Central blood pressure can be measured easily and non-invasively, and the result shows a positive correlation with cardiovascular end-points. Several antihypertensive drugs can differently decrease central and peripheral blood pressure. The effect of diuretics on central systolic and pulse pressure is neutral or negative. While traditional β-blockers (e.g. atenolol) have a definitive negative effect, nebivolol shows a positive one. The calcium antagonists tend to have a favorable effect, while the clear beneficial effect of the angiotensin converting enzime inhibitors is well documented. There are only few data on angiotensin receptor blockers, however, the results seem to be promising.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The clinical significance of peripheral and central blood pressure form the neurologist’s point of view]

BERECZKI Dániel, VASTAGH Ildikó

[Hypertension - affecting both the large and the small cerebral vessels - is the most frequent risk factor for cerebrovascular disorders manifesting in stroke, hypertensive encephalopathy or vascular dementia. The central pressure measured at the proximal part of the aorta has more important role in the development of vascular hypertrophy and carotid atherosclerosis than the pressure measured in the brachial artery. Central aortic pressure more accurately reflects the filling conditions of the left ventricle and thus the pressure conditions affecting the cerebral vascular system, than brachial pressure values, therefore possibly predicts more reliably the risk of cardiovascular events than brachial pressure values. Features of the stiffness of large arteries (like pulse wave velocity) more directly reflect the chronic effect of ageing, hypertension and diabetes than brachial or even central aortic pressure. Therefore in upcoming clinical trials arterial stiffness and central aortic pressure should be considered as possible surrogate endpoints. Antihypertensive treatment is an important part of primary and secondary stroke prevention. Decreasing blood pressure in hypertensive subjects significantly decreases the risk of stroke and other vascular events, and the extent of risk reduction primarily depends on the extent of the decrease in blood pressure. Several factors should be considered when choosing from treatment options. The use of traditional β blockers - partly due to their smaller effects on central blood pressure - decreased recently. Further observations will decide on the role of third generation β blockers in the prevention of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Direct renin inhibitors]

FARSANG Csaba

[The mechanisms of action of direct renin inhibitors and the important clinical findings gained by the first, clinically approved drug, aliskiren are discussed. The relative lack of side effects and the very long-lasting antihypertensive action of aliskiren is emphasized. Investigations showing efficacy and protective effects of aliskiren and its combinations with other antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, calcium antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers) against hypertension-induced subclinical organ damage as well as still ongoing clinical trials are also described.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Importance, prevalence and therapy of vitamin D deficiency]

SZABÓ András

[Annual citations in the PubMed database on vitamin D were approximately 5000, this represents a doubling in the last decade and a 20% increase in the last year. There is renewed interest in vitamin D synthesis, metabolism and action. The two principal reasons for increased interest can be: 1. new knowledge regarding the nonhormonal, autocrine, and paracrine actions of 1,25-dihydroxylated vitamin D metabolites in man, 2. the worsening, worldwide trend to vitamin D insufficiency. Clinical vitamin D research in last years has confirmed the presence of a worldwide problem of vitamin D depletion, a problem that appears to be worsening. Largescale population based studies bear out long-held concerns that low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with a number of adverse outcomes in the human musculoskeletal, innate immune, and cardiovascular systems. In fact, low vitamin D levels are significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the U.S. population and Hungary respectively. It is hypothesized that the global rise in incidence of obesity contributes to the worsening of the problem of vitamin D deficiency, amplifying adverse impacts on the host skeleton, immunoreactivity to microbes, and metabolic status. Finally, it should be remembered that treatment of vitamin D deficiency has two phases: restoration of 25(OH)D levels up to more than 30 ng/ml; and maintenance of the serum 25(OH)D level in that range. The present upper level (UL) of vitamin D intake that is deemed to be safe (2000 IU/day) must be re-evaluated considering data acquired over the past 15 years.]

All articles in the issue

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ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

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[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]

VÁLYI Péter

[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

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KAPÓCS Gábor

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[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]

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[A short chronicle of three decades ]

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[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]