Hypertension and nephrology

[News of the Hungarian Society of Hypertension]

DECEMBER 08, 2012

Hypertension and nephrology - 2012;16(05)



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[News of the Hungarian Society of Nephrology]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The interpretation of metabolic syndrome]

KÉKES Ede, KISS István

[The significant increase of the splanchnic ectopic fat, the disturbance of carbohidrate metabolism, atherogenic dyslipidemia and high blood pressure creates the syndrome so called deadly quartet. These components promote the early appearance of cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, etc.) as well as the enormous growth of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was thought, that the ectopic fat is the only background of the syndrome and the insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia as well as the disruption of associated endocrine regulatory balance system and elevated sympathetic drive explain jointly the clinical events. We now know that cytokines released by ectopic fat issue (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 etc.) launch processes in our organism, which contribute to the development of vascular remodelling, endothelial dysfunction and in the end to that of atherothrombotic processes. The diagnostic criteria of the syndrome were changed continuously parallel growing theoretical knowledge till 2009, when on the Harmony Conference the important components of the syndrome were accepted, but some laboratory and other parameters do not enter into everyday praxis.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of health-centered approach in the management of hypertensive patients]


[In the everyday clinical practice the main objectives are the accurate establishment of the diagnosis and evidence based treatment of diagnosed disease. Besides the accustomed, rigorously medical, simplifying aspect, the bio-psycho- social approach is gaining an increasing importance. The objective of the article is, taking modern definition of health into account, emphasizing the importance of a new approach in the complex management of patients, having primary hypertension, a disease, impairing not only target organs, as well as the whole person, seriously influencing the health status of the affected person. In the management of a hypertensive patient, besides decreasing blood pressure, preventing and treating target organ complications and coexisting diseases, we should assess the whole person impairment, the effects of environmental and personal factors, and their influence on activities of daily living and participation in the life of the society, consequently, the changes in health status. This complex approach permits alone the more complete restoration of health of an affected person.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Terciary hyperparathyreosis or not? ? You cannot solve it alone: combined treatment in severe osteitis fibrosa cystica]

HERSZÉNYI Eszter, PATÓ Éva, SZALAY László, BÍRÓ Zsolt, György Andrea, DEÁK György

[Phosphate retention, consequential rise of the phosphaturic fibroblast growth factor-23 that decreases the level of calcitriol resulting in hypocalcemia facilitates the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and low calcitriol level result in increasing secretion of parathormone (PTH). While sHPT occures frequently in CKD, the development of therapy-resistant and hypercalcemic tertiary hyperparathyroidism is rare due to current therapeutic approaches. We present the case of a 41 year old, treated schizophrenic, hemodialized male patient with severe osteitis fibrosa cystica, severe hyperparathyroidism (PTH 2500 pg/ml) - considered to be tertiary - and with repeated pathologic fractures. While hospitalized, the patient was under supervised, combined therapy with the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol and the calcimimetic cinacalcet that resulted in marked decrease of PTH level to 1589 pg/ml. However, after discharge from the hospital due to the lack of compliance he failed to take his medications and PTH had risen to the initial level. This case demonstrates that severe hyperparathyroidism thought to be therapy resistant responds well to a combination of paricalcitol and cinacalcet however, patient compliance is essential to therapeutic success.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The Hungarian “ÉRV” Program. Program of the Hungarian Society of Hypertension]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral hAemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm


The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

Clinical Neuroscience

Risk factors for ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes in patients with chronic kidney disease

GÜLER Siber, NAKUS Engin, UTKU Ufuk

Background - The aim of this study was to compare ischemic stroke subtypes with the effects of risk factors, the relationship between grades of kidney disease and the severity of stroke subtypes. Methods - The current study was designed retrospectively and performed with data of patients who were hospitalised due to ischemic stroke. We included 198 subjects who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke of Grade 3 and above with chronic kidney disease. Results - In our study were reported advanced age, coronary artery disease, moderate kidney disease as the most frequent risk factors for cardioembolic etiology. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most frequent risk factors for large-artery disease. Female sex and anaemia were the most frequent risk factors for small-vessel disease. Dialysis and severe kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors in unknown etiologies, while male sex, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke and mild kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors for other etiologies. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were lower for small-vessel disease compared with other etiologies. This relation was statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion - In order to improve the prognosis in ischemic stroke with chronic kidney disease, the risk factors have to be recognised and the treatment options must be modified according to those risk factors.

Lege Artis Medicinae


GYŐRFFY Zsuzsa, LŐRINCZ Jenő, ÁDÁM Szilvia, KOPP Mária

[INTRODUCTION - In Hungary the number of induced abortions is three times higher than in European Union countries. The exploration of the bio-psycho-social factors in the background of abortions may serve as an instrument to develop effective prevention. METHODS - The Hungarostudy 2002 national representative study included 12,634 interviewed subjects. The sample represents the Hungarian population above the age of 18, according to gender, age and geographical location. The aim of the health survey was to analyse the physical and psychological status of the Hungarian population as well as the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of abortion in the female sub-sample was 22%. We analysed the background factors of abortion with the help of a statistical analysis. RESULTS - The risk factors behind abortions can be grouped as: physical abuse on behalf of partners and/or parents, attachment disorder and early traumatisation, lack of social support, low financial status and inadequate social environment. These factors have all shown significant connection to abortions. Suicide attempts and suicidal thoughts, high Beck Depression (BDI) scores, smoking and alcohol consumption are also significant among those who had abortions. CONCLUSION - An important aim of the Hungarostudy 2002 survey and the follow-ups is to serve a more extensive and effective prevention by exploring the background factors of induced abortions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


BARNA István

[Target blood pressure and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have to be accomplished always with the consideration of target organ lesion. Fixed-combination antihypertensive therapy has become accepted based on the recommendations of international and Hungarian medical associations that are aware of the results of evidence based medicine. The fix combinational treatment is more favorable for patients’ compliance. The daily dosage of drugs with 24 hour effect improves the patients’ cooperativeness. During fix combinational treatment higher efficiency, smaller dose and fewer side effects were observed. In combination, the effects of the drugs on blood pressure are additive without any increase in adverse effects. Last, but not least the cost of drugs of fixed combination are lower than buying the drugs separately. After careful consideration the fixed combination therapy can be recommended to the everyday practice.]