Hypertension and nephrology

[ACEi or ARB? What are the results of the comparative analysis?]


OCTOBER 20, 2017

Hypertension and nephrology - 2017;21(05)

[Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or those with cardiovascular risk factors. The comparative efficacy and safety of ACEis and ARBs have been much debated. To compare the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients without heart failure a metaanalysis was carried out based on 254.301 subjects of 106 randomised trials. Meta-analysis included randomized trials of ACEis and ARBs compared with placebo or active controls and corroborated with head-to-head trials of ARBs vs ACEis. According to placebo controlled studies ACEis but not ARBs reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and MI. It seems that ACEis are more effective than ARBs. But this is only true if we take into account the trials before 2000. The analysis restricted to trials published after 2000 revealed similar outcomes with ACEis vs placebo and ARBs vs placebo. Head-to-head comparison trials of ARBs vs ACEis exhibited no difference in outcomes. The underlying causes and details are explained in this review.]



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[A Letter to Our Readers]


Hypertension and nephrology

[Thoughts about the Jubilee Congress of the Hungarian Society for Hypertension and a Message to the Guardians...]

KISS István

Hypertension and nephrology

[A Letter to our Colleagues]

JÁRAI Zoltán

Hypertension and nephrology

[Therapy of isolated systolic hypertension III.]


[In the elderly and very elderly (˃80 yrs), a wealth of data from large clinical trials are available, showing the necessity of treatment mostly with drug combinations - fix-combinations are preferred for increasing the adherence/persistence to therapy. Using diuretics, ACE-inhibitors/ARBs with calcium antagonists, and in special cases diuretics and beta blockers are also suggested by recent European guidelines (ESH, HSH). The target is <140 mmHg, but in octogenarians <150 mmHg. Some studies are pressing for even lower SBP (to around 120 mm Hg), but it seems to be wise to balance advantages/disadvantages, so the optimal SBP may be around 130 mmHg.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[New results on the pathomechanism of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection]

MEZÔ Blanka, ANDREAS Heilos, RUSAI Krisztina, PROHÁSZKA Zoltán

[Antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) is a severe clinical problem which is the major immunological cause of kidney transplant failure and may develop slowly months or years after transplantation. According to current knowledge, late ABMR is classically caused by the development of donor specific antibodies (DSA) and the complement system is believed to contribute to tissue damage. The detection of ABMR has been facilitated by improved techniques and new test, resulting in changes of the diagnostic criteria from time to time. The clinical interpretation of DSAs is still not clear however the complement binding ability could help to judge their relevance. In this review we discuss the new results on the pathomechanism and current diagnostic guideline of ABMR. Identification and treatment of ABMR before onset of clinical symptoms is still a big challenge but may lead to a significantly better outcome. In our study we are investigating the role of the complement system including quantitative and genetic testing of several complement proteins that can serve as a diagnostic/prognostic marker of the disease.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Results of ATTENTION study]


[In the ATTENTION (Using of ARB and sTaTin basEd iNdividualized Treatments in Hungarian patients In the light Of New CV prevention guidelines) trial’s ARB arm 9996 treated hypertensive patients were enrolled. Based on the results in the medical practice, the choice of the first ARB has a significant impact on the further antihypertensive therapy. Losartan, telmisartan and valsartan are all suitable for reaching the goal blood pressure. If necessary, doctors will not change the composition but the dose or use a diuretic supplement (resistant hypertension, older age etc.). Overall a telmisartan preference was observed in the study.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The role of vitamin D receptor and the risk reducing effect of vitamin D receptor agonists in chronic kidney disease]


[Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin and is modified in the liver and kidney to the active metabolite form, 1,25-dyhydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). Calcitriol binds to a nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activates processes that bind to vitamin D. The classical effects of vitamin D receptor activator or agonist (VDRA) therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease primarily involves suppressive effects on the parathyroid gland, and regulation of calcium and phosphorus absorption in the intestine an mobilization in bone. Several VDR agonists have been developed for the treatment of osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and psoriasis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common and serious consequence of CKD. SHPT is a complex condition characterized by a decline in 1,25-dihidroxi vitamin D and consequent VDR activation, abnormalities in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, parathyroid gland hyperplasia, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, and systemic mineral and bone abnormalities. There are three classes of drug used for treatment of SHPT (non-selective and selective VDR activators, and calcimimetics). Observational studies in hemodialysis patients report improved cardiovascular and allcause survival among those received VDRA therapy compared with those not on VDRA therapy. The survival benefits of selective VDRA paricalcitol appear to be linked to "non classical" action of VDRA, possibly through VDRA-mediated modulation of gene expression. VRDAs are reported to have beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects, inhibition of vascular calcification and stiffening, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. VDRA are also reported to negatively regulate the renin-angiotensin system, which plays a key role in hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke. Data from epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies have shown that vitamin D and/or 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The selective VDR agonists are associated direct protective effects on glomerular architecture and antiproteinuric effects in response to renal damage. Emerging evidence suggest that VDR plays important roles in modulating cardiovascular, immunological, metabolic and other function. Paricalcitol may prove to have a substantial beneficial effect on cardiac disease and its outcome in patients with CKD.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Meta-analysis about the Incontinence-associated dermatitis prevention ]

KÓSZÓ Lilla, NAGY Erika

[Background: The maintenance of tissue integrity is an essential part of qualitative nursing. There is a wide scale of products serving the prevention of Incontinence-associated Dermatitis (IAD). However, there is little evidence nurses know about them, making their choice of strategy difficult. Aim: To produce an evidence based publication about the preventive products of IAD, helping nurses in their choice of strategy. Method: In our meta analysis we examined the content of the Medline and Scopus database with special focus on English and Hungarian publications from the last ten years. From the 17459 articles relevant in this topic we analyzed and included 9 studies serving our criteria. Records: We found several methods of prevention; Washing without water, special absorbent pants, protocols and a study about the ’perineal pouch’. The studies were compared from the aspect of IAD prevalence, severity and cost effects. The 3in1 products and protokolls are should be used is the hungarian nursing practice.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[How diabetogenic is statin therapy?]


[According to the latest guidelines, the goal in cardiovascular prevention is to achieve an LDL-cholesterol level no higher than 1.8 mmol/l in the high risk and extra high risk groups. According to international recommendations, statin should be used at the highest tolerable dose rather than any combination treatments. In a number of cases, higher doses are associated with increased side effects, which rarely affect liver enzymes and CK-parameters. A metaanalysis published in 2011 made it clear that higher statin doses compared with low-medium doses can increase the occurence of newonset diabetes by about 12%. This is presumably a class effect, which is not significant according to the guidelines, and which is much lesser than the benefits of this therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular events, thus, it obviously does not question the justification of statin treatment. However, the observed association implies that during statin therapy of nondiabetic patients, blood glucose control should be performed every year, and, if needed, an oral glucose tolerance test should be performed to detect the potential development of diabetes.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cardiovascular diseaes and the kidney]

PRÉDA István

[From pathophysiological point of view, the kidney is an integral part of the cardiovascular system. Renal diseases adversely affect the cardiac functions, and disturbances of the cardiovascular system affect adversely renal functions, causing either the decrease of left ventricular functions or manifesting in overt chronic heart failure. Regarding the cardiac manifestations of renal diseases, characteristic features are the symptoms of left ventricular volume and pressure overload, the metabolic effects of the ”uremic toxins” and the frequent infections associated with dialysis and compromised immunologic state, the secunder hyperparathyreosis, as well as the associated conditions like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary atherosclerosis. All these can be the explanation for the frequent cardiovascular death of chronic kidney disease patients. It also stresses the outstanding importance of the decrease of cardiovascular hazard of chronic renal disease patients. The strategy should comprise of an adequate antihypertensive treatment (ACE-inhibitor, AT-II blocking and calcium antagonist), strong antidiabetic control of diabetic patients and the adequate treatment of dyslipidaemia (if exists), as well as antithrombotic aspirin treatment.]