Hungarian Radiology

[Vadon Gábor professor’s photo exhibition - Sopron Ultrasound Days, October 2009.]


DECEMBER 21, 2009

Hungarian Radiology - 2009;83(04)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Residents here and over the rainbow]


Hungarian Radiology

[Cervical space occupying lesions: diagnosis at sonoelastography]


[Among cervical (neck) region tumours, the thyroid lesions and the metastatic lymph nodes are the most detectable with conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US). The use of MRI and CT scans are limited because of the cost, and in case of CT, the radiation. With the introduction and constant development of sonoelastography, we have in our hands a new imaging procedure which is cheap, fast and harmless, yet giving more information to the examiner than conventional US. The elastographic examination of thyroid lesions is a more explored area than the elastographic visualisation of cervical lymph nodes. The ‘off-line’ elastography showed the highest accuracy allowing to calculate and analyse the strain index of cervical lymph nodes - strain index > 1.5 (85% sensitivity, 98% specificity) - but the ‘off-line’ processing of US elastograms is still too time consuming to be used in busy clinical settings. During the examinations of the thyroid gland both real-time and off-line processed strain imaging were used. An Italian team made a great leap forward as they standardized the degree of distorsion under the application of the external force. Then using the Ueno and Itoh elasticity score they achieved remarkable accuracy with real-time sonoelastography (P <0.0001). On the other hand only those organs are suitable for the US elastography characterization which can be slightly compressed, consequently the examination of a lesion with calcified shell cannot give useful information. Near to the pulsating arteries substantial amounts of decorrelation noise may appear and the examiner has to pay attention what structures are in the ROI box since the sonoelastography method assumes computations relative to the average strain inside the box. To detect a follicular carcinoma in the thyroid gland remains a big challenge. Despite of the limitations most researchers agree on the fact that sonoelastography is a perfect tool to use in addition to the conventional US examination. B-mode US combined with sonoelastography raised the accuracy in differentiation in all cases. With this modality it is also possible to deduce the number of cases when healthy lymph nodes or tissue peaces are taken for biopsy during FNAB.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Clinical significance of nuclear scans in assessing function of thyroid nodules]

NAGY Dezső, BORBÉLY Katalin

[Functional and anatomical imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules presenting with continuously increasing number. In the first part of the paper the usefulness and recent trends of the classical nuclear medicine is discussed. The second part presents the interpretation of incidental thyroid lesions detected by PET-CT and the usefulness of PET in the evaluation of thyroid carcinoma.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Digital volume tomography - The use of cone beam CT in dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery]


[Oral and maxillofacial radiology is a subspecialty with its own field of indication. The goal is to achieve proper diagnostic image quality with the minimal amount of harmful radiation. The most common acquisition techniques are the intraoral radiograph and the panoramic radiograph which result in an overview picture of the whole dental status of the patient or the full mouth survey with the higher doses of radiation indicated for periodontological treatment. The next level is the supplementary radiograph such as occlusal radiograph, transversal tomography (some panoramic radiographs have this option), lateral cephalometric projection, submentovertex view or Waters projection, etc. More over cone beam CT acquisition or digital volume tomography as is called. In case of some described special indications CT, MRI or sometimes US acquisition can be made. In the field of three dimensional radio-diagnostics, the CT has a superior place with well-known advantages for everybody, and the usage has been limited only by the high radiation dose. The main point of the acquisition is the image quality. The load of radiation only makes the field of indication narrow. In every day practice - because of the higher radiation load of each high quality CT - the pictures passing to the doctor are preferred to take with lower resolution and wider slices although the diagnostic value of this never reaches the wanted level. This is why this new acquisition system also mentioned in the title would be better known. This system works with reasonable low radiation coupling with the possibilities of the high fidelity 3D imaging focusing on the bony structures of the head and neck region. The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive introduction to this method in use for more than a decade. From 2006 in Hungary we also have the option to use the technology.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Voiding sonocystography with ultrasound contrast material for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux]


[Voiding sonocystography with intravesical administration of ultrasound contrast agent is a sensitive method to detect vesicoureteral reflux without irradiation. Depicting microbubbles in the ureters and collecting system is feasible even with very small amounts of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent, Sonovue. The reflux is graded (I-V) in a similar manner to the system used in voiding cystourethrography. In this article a detailed description is presented.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke


Background: This overview provides a summary of the applications of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in ischemic stroke. Results: A fast-track neurovascular ultrasound protocol has been developed for detecting occlusion or stenosis. The technique is more reliable in the carotid area than in the posterior circulation. By monitoring the pulsatility index the in­crea­sed intracranial pressure can be diagnosed. TIBI score was developed for grading residual flow. TCD has been shown to accurately predict complete or any recanalization. Regarding recanalization, TCD has a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 96%, a negative predictive value of 78% and an overall accuracy of 91%, respectively. Sonothrombolysis seemed to be a promising application but randomized controlled trials have shown that it does not improve clinical outcome. TCD examination can detect microembolic signals (MES) which are associated with an increased risk of stroke. Micro­em­boli were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and during carotid endarterectomy. The number of microemboli can be decreased by antithrombotic therapy. Contrast en­chan­ced examination and Valsalva maneuver with continuous TCD monitoring can accurately screen for right-to-left shunt.

Clinical Neuroscience

Risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under endoscope

XU Yifan, HE Yuxin , XU Wu, LU Tianyu, LIANG Weibang, JIN Wei

Background – Up to now, the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy remain controversial. Purpose – To analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under an endoscope, and to provide evidence for preventing and controlling the occurrence and development of infections. A total of 370 patients receiving endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2017 were selected. The risk factors related to postoperative intracranial infections were analyzed. The hospitalization lengths and expenditures of patients with and without intracranial infections were compared. Of the 370 patients, 18 underwent postoperative intracranial infections, with the infection rate of 4.86%. Intraoperative blood loss >120 mL, cerebrospinal leakage, diabetes, preoperative use of hormones, macroadenoma as well as surgical time >4 h all significantly increased the infection rate (P<0.05). Preoperative use of antibacterial agents prevented intracranial infection. Compared with patients without intracranial infections, the infected ones had significantly prolonged hospitalization length and increased expenditure (P<0.05). Discussion – It is of great clinical significance to analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infection after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy, aiming to prevent and to control the onset and progression of infection. Intracranial infections after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy were affected by many risk factors, also influencing the prognosis of patients and the economic burden.