Hungarian Radiology

[Ultrasonographic twin peak sign]


JANUARY 20, 2003

Hungarian Radiology - 2003;77(01)

[INTRODUCTION - Author describes ultrasonographic twin peak sign in order to differentiate dichorial-diamniotic from monochronic-diamnotic pregnancy in early gestation. In case of dichorial pregnancy the chorial tissue is forming a triangle shape. In case of monochorial twins the two amnion layers are forming a ”T” shape. CASE REPORT - The first case represents a dichorionic pregnancy, while the second case is an example of monochorionic placental formation. CONCLUSION - The twin peak sign has clinical significance, because dichorionic pregnancies carry less risk of gestational and labor complications.]



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Hungarian Radiology

[A Neuroradiology Postgraduate and Specialist Training Workgroup is Formed at the Radiology Clinic of the University of Szeged Faculty of Medicine]

PALKÓ András

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[Coding Breast Cylinder Biopsies: B1-B5]

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Hungarian Radiology

[A paradox of articular protective phenomenon: more serious-damaged rudimentary hand in rheumatoid arthitis]

SZÁNTÓ Dezső, SZŰCS Gabriella, DITRÓI Edit

[INTRODUCTION - The joints have been secured from rheumatoid arthritis by diminution of biomechanical effeciency. This effect was analyzed and named articular protective phenomenon three decades ago. CASE REPORT - A case of bilateral rheumatoid arthritis associated with unilateral developmental abnormality hand and bronchial asthma in a 35 year old female patient is presented. Her left 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpal bones moreover her fingers had not evolved. The patient has been treated by antiasthmatic steroid drugs for five years. Rheumatoid disorders of the affected left hand were more severe, than the abnormality of the normal upper limb. Eight years later the most severe bony lesions (ankylosis and mutilation) appeared on this side, only. CONCLUSION - The patient's hand was not saved by inborn bone defect in rheumatoid arthritis. The absence of articular protective phenomenon can be explained by the undisturbed innervation of limb, the motility of hypotrophic carpus besides to steroid-induced suppression.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Birth Anniversary of György Benkő MD 1913-1972]


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LAM Extra for General Practicioners

[Polyneuropathy as a first sign of microscopic polyangiitis]

ZÖLD Éva, HORVÁTH Ildikó Fanny, TARJÁN Péter, BARTA Zsolt, ZEHER Margit

[INTRODUCTION - Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic autoimmun disease characterized by necrotizing small vasculitis. MPA belongs to the ANCA-associated vasculitides. The disease can affect many of the body’s organ systems. Major organs involved are kidneys, skin, peripheral nerves and lungs. In addition, generalized symptoms such as fever and weight loss are very common. CASE REPORT - In January 2013 a 56-year old woman presented with weight loss, lower leg numbness, walking difficulty and petechiae on the lower legs. One month later, laboratory examinations showed progressive kidney dysfunction, anemia, hypersedimentation and elevated C reactive protein level, but further tests and investigations for potential bacterial infection and tumors were all negative. In sum, clinical signs and symptoms suggested systemic vasculitis, which was proved by the kidney biopsy and ENG examination. From these findings, microscopic polyangiitis was diagnosed with polyneuropathy and glomerulonephritis. The patient was a Hepatitis B (HBV) virus carrier, which can be provoking factor for vasculitis. Corticosteroid and six treatment cycles of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide were performed for induction of remission. After treatment her symptoms improved and kidney function was normalized. Antiviral treatment was started because of HBV reactivation in October 2013. As a new manifestation of MPA, pulmonary symptoms were appeared in November 2013 and the patient was treated with synchronization of plasmapheresis and pulse cyclophosphamide with good clinical effectivity. Now, she is treated with methotrexate as immunosuppressive treatment and control examinations indicate the remission of the disease with proper renal function. CONCLUSION - We draw attention to a rare case of vasculitis and underline the importance of both the early diagnosis and the early and effective immunosuppressive therapy. Peripheral neuropathy may occur as a result of having systemic vasculitis. Nevertheless, the exploration and elimination of provoking factors are also must be part of the management and the regular follow-up is essential to recognize the disease relapses, thus avoid permanent organ damage.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Selective abortion in twin pregnancies discordant for congenital fetal anomaly]

PATKÓS Péter, HRUBY Ervin, PAPP Csaba, TÓTH-PÁL Ernő, PAPP Zoltán

[INTRODUCTION - In special cases of twin pregnancy where one of the fetuses is affected by severe congenital anomaly or disease confirmed with prenatal diagnostic methods and the other fetus is healthy, selective abortion has been accepted as the method of choice for twenty years to save the healthy sibling and to improve its life expectations. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The authors present their clinical experience of the past 15 years from 14 cases of selective abortion performed in twin pregnancies discordant for congenital fetal anomaly. Indication for the intervention was the anomaly of the second fetus in eleven cases and the anomaly of the first twin fetus in three cases. RESULTS - Out of eleven selective abortions performed on the second twin fetus, only one ended with the loss of the entire pregnancy. All three cases of selective abortion performed on the first twin fetus resulted in abortion of the entire twin pregnancy. All ten surviving fetuses were born living and healthy, followed by unharmed infant and childhood development. CONCLUSIONS - To offer the possibility of selective abortion to the parents seems to be indicated only in those cases of twin pregnancy where the discordant fetal disease or congenital anomaly is severe, placentation is dichorionic or at least diamniotic and where the second twin is affected.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The red eye]

IMRE László

[Eye redness may be a sign of a variety of eye diseases with different severity. Most often redness is relatively harmless, such as conjunctivitis, but it can be a serious illness with visual impairment and even lasting consequences in the background of redness. It is therefore important for non-ophthalmologists to be informed and to know the basic types of redness of the eye and to recognize typical and characteristic forms of appearance. Based on these, they can decide whether the patient can be treated or forwarded to an ophthalmic institution. In the present continuing education article we try to summarize the causes of the red eye, primarily according to the characteristics of the redness of the eye and the anatomical localization. During the investigation of a patient with red eye, the type of the redness can be determined most by diffuse illumination and by naked eye inspection without any other means. It is important to know the principal features and causes of redness of conjunctival or ciliary or scleral origin, possible other recognizable differences (e.g. conjunctival papillae or follicles or conjunctival chemosis). We have attempted to illustrate these with a number of photographs, starting with a schematic representation of the characteristic features of redness. We tried to emphasize cases suitable for treating by non-ophthalmologists and tried to draw attention to the importance of referral un­clear or complicated cases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dysexecutive syndromes]


[Executive function is a higher order cognitive capacity that involves memory, perception and performance of complex tasks. Disorders of the executive functions are sign of lesions in the praefrontal cortex, involving the praefrontal-striatal-thalamic networks and the parietal association areas. According to signs and localization, five basic praefrontal syndromes are recognised. 1. Damage in posterior dorsolateral praefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei causes the dorsolateral syndrome with impaired decision making, working memory and planning. 2. The ventromedial-orbitofrontal syndrome: if lesion spares the basal forebrain, memory can be preserved, but poor social decision making developes. 3. The dorsomedial syndrome consists of attention disorder, akinesia, mutism and apathy. 4. The bilateral ventrolateral praefrontal regions serve perception of self and environment. 5. The ventral lateral (verbalizer) area of the dominant hemisphere coordinates language. Executive impairments can be found in cerebrovascular, Parkinson's and other diseases of basal ganglia, and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The dorsolateral syndrome can be examined by the use of Wisconsin card sorting test, self ordered pointing task and the delayed response task. Praefrontal-basal function can be assessed by Gambling-, Faux Pas-, and Emotion identification tasks. Conclusions: 1. A dysexecutive syndrome does not fulfil the criteria of dementia. 2. A "frontal syndrome" is an indefinite eponym. Focal lesions in prefrontal systems lead to localization- specific symptoms, which can be defined by psychometric tests. 3. In neurological diseases associated with multifocal damage of the brain neuropsychologic tests may help to determine strategical lesions, which are responsible for the actual syndromes.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Intracranial propagation of invasive aspergilloma in an immuncompromised patient]


[Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system is a rare disease, occasionally seen among immunocompromised patients. The most frequent pathway is hematogenic dissemination. Less known is the direct propagation from the paranasal sinuses, which is usually observed in immunocompetent patients. We report a patient who developed cavernous sinus syndrome due to an invasive intracranial aspergilloma after longlasting chemo- and steroid therapy for chronic lymphoid leukemia and immunhemolytic anemia. The characteristic features seen on radiological images - brain CT and MRI - suggested the possibility of invasive aspergilloma. Postoperative histology defined the diagnosis. Our case review highlights the importance of considering the possibility of an invasive opportunistic infection of the CNS in an immunocompromised patient presenting a new neurological sign.]