Hungarian Radiology

[The role of static MR-urography in diagnostics of urinary obstruction]

KIS Zsuzsanna, FAZEKAS Péter, KULCSÁR Dániel, KÖTELES Márta, KOVÁCS Annamária, MAGYAR Klára

DECEMBER 20, 2006

Hungarian Radiology - 2006;80(07-08)

[INTRODUCTION - The idea and methodology of MRurography has just crystallized recently due to the development of technology. The traditional MRU technology means the strongly T2 weighted sequence, suitable for depicting stationary liquid spaces. Its use is independent of the functional status of the kidneys thus it is suitable for depicting dilatated ureters in case of nonfunctioning kidneys, too. Authors's aim was to define the role of sMRU in the diagnostics of obstructive urinary diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS - 60 sMRU examinations were performed on 59 patients using a 1.5 T Siemens Symphony MR scanner in the CT-MR Laboratory of the Markhot Ferenc County Hospital between May 1, 2003 and October 31, 2005. The sMRU was performed with 2D T2 TSE sequence with angiographic character. In each case, the examinations were completed with conventional sequences in multiple planes. The role of gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted MR urography in the same diseases was not studied. In 7 cases, low-dose thin slice CT examination was performed to reveal the precise cause of obstruction. The examinations were preceded by abdominal ultrasound or intravenous urography (IVU). RESULTS - Out of the 60 sMRU examinations uretery dilatation were observed in 50 cases. In the background of obstruction, stone could be detected in 13 patients, dilatation was observed in 4 patients and MR did not indicate stone. In 7 cases with known neoplastic disease, associated urinary obstruction could be detected. In the background of obstruction primary neoplasm was found in 10 patients unknown prior the MR examination. Other benign obstruction occurred in 13 cases. Obstruction was not proved in 10 patients. In these cases the examination was justified by uncertain ultrasound findings together with abnormal renal function parameters. Follow up sMRU was performed in one patient. False diagnosis was established in two patients, the cause of dilatation was not found in one patient. CONCLUSIONS - The sMRU examination can provide more precise detection of the causes of severe urinary obstructions. It helps to define the level of obstruction in case of known malignant tumors. The grade of urinary dilatation could be also evaluated. The sMRU examination in conjunction with conventional sequences in multiple planes made possible to set up a correct therapy plan.]

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Hungarian Radiology

[23rd Congress of the Society of Hungarian Radiologists, 1st Hungarian-Austrian Congress of Radiology]

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Hungarian Radiology

[Aquired non-inflammatory and non-traumatic hypoplasia-dysplasia of the femoral neck Report of two cases]

NICOL Richard, MARZENA Wisniewska, KAZIMIERZ Kozlowski

[Recently DiFazio et al reported four children with remarkable femoral neck deformity who had extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. We report two patients with similar femoral neck changes who did not have ECMO treatment but have had complicated, strenuous first few weeks after birth. The first patient had been operated on twice for diaphragm repair at the age of 18 hours and 1 month. The second patient had cardiac surgery at the age of two months, with one hour of extracorporeal cardiorespiratory bypass. We agree with DiFazio et al and believe that four of their patients and both of ours have femoral neck growth cartilage injury secondary to hypoxia, vascular disturbance and coagulopathy.]

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[Gas collection in the superior mesenteric and in the portal veins]

LUDVIG Zsuzsanna, PAP Tímea, SZILÁGYI Adrienn, KOSTYÁL László, BARTA Szabolcs, BOTOS Ákos

[INTRODUCTION - Intrahepatic gas is frequently seen during abdominal ultrasound studies which is generally of biliary origin due to biliary interventional procedures e.g. endoscopic sphincterotomy. In our case, large amount of intrahepatic gas was present originated from the superior mesenteric and portal veins. CASE REPORT - A 94-year-old male patient with vomiting, shivering and heavy abdominal pain was admitted in bad condition to the department of surgery. Billroth II gastric resection was noted in the case history. Chest, plain abdominal X-ray and abdominal ultrasound examination was performed. Ultrasonography showed a large amount gas collection in the region of the left liver lobe (no prior history of endoscopic sphincterotomy). It was difficult to perform abdominal ultrasound due to the intrahepatic gas collection and abdominal bowel gas. Computer tomographic examination confirmed the presence of intrahepatic gas which is localized in the portal venous system. Large amount of gas collection was seen in the abdominal cavity, in the mesenterium and in the retroperitoneum. In addition a gallstone of 2 cm in size was found in the duodenum. CONCLUSION - CT scans confirmed the perforation of gall bladder due to subsequent cholecystic- duodenal fistula. As a consequence of perforation, inflammation of the mesentery and retroperitoneum developed causing mesenteric vein thrombosis and bowel wall necrosis. Bacteria in the necrotic bowel wall produced gas which entered into the veins and reached the portal system.]

Hungarian Radiology

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Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

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[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

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[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score and etiology in adult NCSE patients

GENC Fatma, ERDAL Abidin, AKCA Gizem, KARACAY Ertan, GÖKSU Özaydın Eylem, KUTLU Gülnihal, GÖMCELI Bicer Yasemin

Purpose - Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a heterogeneous, severe neurological disorder of different etiologies. In this study, the outcomes of NCSE episodes was assessed in a large series of adult patients. Our objective was to evaluate relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and etiology and the role of etiological factors on predicting the outcomes. Method - In this retrospective study, the medical records of 95 patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with NCSE between June 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. Their treatment and follow-up for NCSE was performed at the Epilepsy Unit in Department of Neurology, Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Etiological factors thought to be responsible for NCSE episodes as well as the prognostic data were retrieved. The etiological factors were classified into three groups as those with a known history of epilepsy (Group 1), primary neurological disorder (Group 2), or systemic/unknown etiology (Group 3). STESS was retrospectively applied to patients. Results - There were 95 participants, 59 of whom were female. Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 consisted of 11 (7 female), 54 (33 female), and 30 (19 female) patients, respectively. Of the 18 total deaths, 12 occurred in Group 2, and 6 in Group 3. The negative predictive value for a STESS score of ≤ 2 was 93.88% (+LR 2.05 95% CI: 1.44-2.9 and -LR 0.3 95% CI 0.10-0.84 ) in the overall study group. While the corresponding values for Group 1 (patients with epilepsy), Group 2 (patients with primary neurological disorder), and group 3 (patients with systemic or unknown etiology) were 100%, 92.59% (+LR 2.06 95%CI: 1.32-3.21 and -LR 0.28 95% CI 0.08-1.02 ) 83.33% (+LR 1.14 95%CI: 0.59-2.9 and -LR 0.80 95% CI 0.23-2.73). Conclusions - This study included the one of the largest patients series ever reported in whom STESS, a clinical scoring system proposed for use in patients with status epilepticus, has been implemented. Although STESS appeared to be quite useful for predicting a favorable outcome in NCSE patients with epilepsy and primary neurological disorders, its predictive value in patients with systemic or unknown etiology was lower. Further prospective studies including larger NCSE samples are warranted.