Hungarian Radiology

[Sixty years, fourty years - milestones in ultrasound diagnostics]

HARKÁNYI Zoltán

SEPTEMBER 20, 2008

Hungarian Radiology - 2008;82(05-06)

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Hungarian Radiology

[Radiological diagnostics in bone metastases]

GŐDÉNY Mária, BODOKY György

[Imaging plays a crucial role in defining bone metastases, and thus, therapy planning. We are responsible for accurate data collection, pre-treatment evaluation, evaluation of therapy response and post-treatment evaluation. Precision highly depends on the expertise and experience of the evaluating radiologist, and therefore, being familiar with the latest literature is essential. The bone status can be detected well by bone scan, analysed by conventional X-ray examination and by the cross sectional digital imaging modalities. The whole body PET/CT functional imaging is becoming increasingly popular in the metastatic workup of patients and for monitoring response to therapy. MRI has been found to be the most accurate method for bone metastasis in most comparative evaluations in the literature. This article is a review of the latest papers focusing on the clinical significance of the imaging results in bone metastasis diagnostics.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Rheumatoid arthritis: significance and methodology of cervical spine X-rays in everyday practice]

NÉMETH Ildikó, BUDAY Ilona, MOLNÁR Éva, NYITRAI Márta, SAÁRY Krisztina, TARKOVÁCS Andrea, VARSÁNYI Nóra, FARBAKY Zsófia

[Cervical spine joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis may lead to progressive vertebral instability. It is a severe risk factor for cord compression, which may even lead to sudden death. Many patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may have no symptoms referable to the neck. True degree of subluxation may occur during anaesthesia when the neck muscles are relaxed and protective spasm is absent. The cervical deformities can be visualised on conventional, transoral and functional lateral view in the flexion and extension positions of the neck. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the usefulness of cervical dynamic X-ray for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. This is the first classical radiological imaging method in the diagnosis and in radiographic follow-up. It is a very important method in the preoperative evaluation to prevent definitive neurologic injury. We describe the method for screening, measuring and grading cervical subluxations and instability in our everyday routine.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Role of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of malignant liver tumors - Possibilities and limitations]

BÁNSÁGHI Zoltán

[Radiofrequency tumour therapy is a minimally invasive procedure. It has been used in several specialities independently of the type and location of the tumour, and has shown its worth. In primary hepatic malignancies, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a curative procedure. Recent publications reveal that hepatocellular carcinomas which were of cirrhotic origin and not larger than 5 cm have shown similar responses to both RFA and surgery. In cases of metastatic hepatic tumours, RFA showed slightly poorer results as compared to surgery. But, in tumour foci less than 3 cm or in patients in whom the perioperative risks were high (and they presented with tumor foci less than 3 cm and 3 foci), RFA proved to be a better alternative to surgery. RFA, when used percutaneously, is a cheaper procedure as compared to surgical resection. It can be performed on an out-patient basis with a maximum of 24 hours of observation. Local anesthetic or slight sedation may be employed. Greatest advantage of RFA is its ability to cause tumour degradation. Its results are not well known in our country. Under the existing financial system, RFA is not feasible.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Use of plain and intravenous contrast material multidetector CT examinations in acute abdomen]

TÓTH László, TÓTH Géza, TURUPOLI Emőke, LOMBAY Béla, PAVLIKOVICS Gábor

[Through most of Europe, multidetector computed tomography is used as the first-line modalitiy for examining the acute abdomen. Acute abdominal pain, symptoms referring to abnormal bowel movements, gastrointestinal bleeding, worsening general state, and other typical clinical signs require quick and precise diagnosis since these conditions are frequently life-threatening. The sensitivity and specificity of CT examinations have significantly improved due to the development of the machinary. Thus, the scope of indications are also expanding. Almost all acute abdominal disorders, that may lead to an acute surgical procedure, can be diagnosed with the help of multidetector CT. Unnecessary surgical procedures, the risk to the patients and also the cost of hospitalization can be reduced using multidetector CT examination.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Forces exerted on the plaques during in vitro measurements by various carotid stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices]

SZIKRA Péter, VÖRÖS Erika, SZTRIHA László, SZÓLICS Alex, PALKÓ András

[PURPOSE - During the endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis, one of the most important aspects is reducing of embolic complications. Degree of embolization may be influenced by the force exerted by stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices. We assessed the force emersion produced by various devices on vessel walls and plaques. MATERIAL AND METHOD - Six different commercially available devices were investigated. The force load on vessel wall was measured in a carotid model with vessel angulations of 25, 50 and 75 degree, respectively. The IDTE 2000 CE marked measurement system was used. A transparent, flexible PVC tube was used as a model of the carotid bifurcation, which was 6 mm in width, 1.5 mm wall thickness and 12 mm length. 75-85% stenosis were created in it. The measured data were evaluated and different conclusions were drawn. RESULTS - Forces exerted on vessel walls varied widely among different stent delivery systems. The magnitude of force exertion caused by stent delivery systems significantly exceeded that caused by protecting devices. Protecting devices showed only 30% increase in vessel load at angulation of 75 degrees compared to those at 25-50 degrees. Above 50 degrees of vessel angulation the forces exerted by stent delivery systems considerably increases. CONCLUSIONS - Our results showed that selection of the most proper stent can contribute to decrease in the load of vessel wall. Protecting devices exert significantly lower forces than stent delivery systems, therefore, it seems to be a better choice to advance a protecting device before introducing a stent delivery system. If the vessel angulation exceeds 50 degrees, endarterectomy should be considered, because the vessel wall load will increase radically in that case.]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

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Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

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