Hungarian Radiology

[Pictures to the past Methodological possibilities in the palaeoradiology]

KRISTÓF Lilla Alida1, BARTA H. Miklós2, PETRIK Anikó2, PAP Ildikó3, PÁLFI György3, FORNET Béla4, FORRAI Gábor2

FEBRUARY 20, 2004

Hungarian Radiology - 2004;78(01)

[INTRODUCTION - The radiology as a method is useful not only in the field of the traditional medicine, but in the historic anthropology examining the ancient human remains, and in the palaeopathology examining the pathological changes of the ancient human remains. The aim of our study was the correction of the palaeopathological methods and the radiological diagnosis of the ancient pathological remains. MATERIAL AND METHODS - Approximately 25 specimens originating from the Avar-, the Hungarian Conquest Period and from the Arpadian Age with pathological changes were examined. Besides these 11 naturally mummified individuals were examined by radiological methods, too. The X-ray examinations were done at the Department of Radiology of the National Medical Centre, in Budapest. RESULTS - Vertebral changes, pulmonary tuberculosis and traumatic lesions were found on the mummified individuals. The most frequent changes of the bone alterations were traumas: fractures of the ulna, clavicule, ribs, and trephanation of the skull. Several degenerative changes of the vertebral columns and of the articulation surfaces were detected (osteophyta, spondylosis, arthrosis). The rheumatoid arthritis, Paget-disease, facies leprosa, and the traces of vertebral tuberculosis should be mentioned among the rare pathological disorders. CONCLUSIONS - Since there are no sufficient palaeoradiological methodological references, it was necessary to develop new methods for X-ray examinations.]


  1. Miskolci Egyetem, Kulturális Antropológia Szak
  2. Országos Gyógyintézeti Központ, Radiológiai Osztály
  3. Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum, Embertani Tár, Budapest
  4. Nemzetközi Egészségügyi Központ



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Conference of the Senior and Junior Club of the Society of Hungarian Radiologists]


Hungarian Radiology

[Cornell Seminar]


Hungarian Radiology

[Recovery of multiple brain abscesses caused by Serratia marcescens in newborn age]

FEJES Melinda, BORBÁS Éva, PAPP Attila, SZÉKHELYI Zsuzsanna, SZŰTS Ágnes

[INTRODUCTION - Multiple brain abscesses caused by Serratia marcescens is a rare disease in newborn infants. The paper describes the development, case history and treatment of the disease. Radiological features of Gram negative bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses are also discussed. PATIENT AND METHODS - A newborn baby boy presented polycythaemia and fever was admitted to the hospital in the first days of his life. On the 11th day after admission convulsions occured and because of suspected intracranial abnormality or meningitis cranial CT was performed. On CT scans multiple abscesses were revealed and surgical therapy including drainage and ventricle shunt was done. During the treatment he had epileptic seisures frequently, but he became symptome free after the introduction of complex antiepileptic therapy. Now the two year old boy is in a good physical condition but he has mild motoromental deficience. CONCLUSION - Radiological imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and the follow up of brain abscesses and also in the evaluation of its complications.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Future planning of radiology before joining the EU]


Hungarian Radiology

[Theoretical basis of tumor staging The significance of imaging in oncological diseases]


[The general goal for staging patients with any cancer is to determine the overal extent of disease prior to choice of therapy. It has been well documented that biological behavior of any cancer and, therefore, the prognosis of the patient is strongly linked to the extent of the tumor, the presence or absence of lymphatic dissemination as well as systemic metastases. The staging systems have undergone a number of modifications. Classifications of TNM system identifies the depth of tumor invasion (T), the status of regional lymph nodes (N) and the distant metastases. These three parameters are then incorporated into the final clinical stage. There are further modifications which influence the patient survival, e.g. biological, genetical, hystological factors, tumor grade. All cancer cells show dysregulation of cell cycle controll. As the cancer proliferates and the tumor reaches approximately 1-2 mm in diameter further growth recquires the development of new blood vessels (neo-angiogenesis). Intensity of tumor growth has a prognostic influence to the patient's life and depends on the tumor doubling time, which classifies tumors into slow, intermadiate and rapid growing types. The diagnostic impact of imaging is based on the ability of a technique to detect and evaluate the cancer accurately. The very high accuracy and reproducibility of cross-sectional imaging, paticularly computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make these methods extremely important in the detection, staging and in the evaluation of the tumors. The revolutionary advances in detection and treatment of malignant disease have led to an increasing role of the radiologist as a member of the multidisciplinary cancer team.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Health status and costs of ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary]

PÉNTEK Márta, GULÁCSI László, RÓZSA Csilla, SIMÓ Magdolna, ILJICSOV Anna, KOMOLY Sámuel, BRODSZKY Valentin

[Background and purpose - Data on disease burden of multiple sclerosis from Eastern-Central Europe are very limited. Our aim was to explore the quality of life, resource utilisation and costs of ambulating patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary. Methods - Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed in two outpatient neurology centres in 2009. Clinical history, health care utilisation in the past 12 months were surveyed, the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was conducted from the societal perspective. Results - Sixty-eight patients (female 70.6%) aged 38.0 (SD 9.1) with disease duration of 7.8 (SD 6.7) years were involved. Fifty-five (80.9%) had relapsing-remitting form and 52 (76.5%) were taking immunomodulatory drug. The average scores were: Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.9 (SD 1.7), EQ-5D 0.67 (SD 0.28). Mean total cost amounted to 10 902 Euros/patient/year (direct medical 67%, direct nonmedical 13%, indirect costs 20%). Drugs, disability pension and informal care were the highest cost items. Costs of mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-3.5) and moderate (Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0-6.5) disease were 9 218 and 17 634 Euros/patient/year respectively (p<0.01), that is lower than results from Western European countries. Conclusion - Our study provides current inputs for policy making and contributes to understanding variation of costof- illness of multiple sclerosis in Europe.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Valproic acid associated pleuropericardial effusion: case report

DEMIR Figen Ulku

Introduction - Valproic acid is an effective antiepileptic and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although there are frequently seen side effects, effusions between layers of pleural and pericardial membranes are rare to be seen. Case - Pleuropericardial effusion was detected in a 23 years old woman who was under valproic acid treatment because of epileptic seizure. After 1 year of valproic acid treatment, patient complained of dyspnea. As all the researches intended on etiology were usual, valproic acid has been thought to be responsible for the matter. Control examination after 1.5 months regarding the end of treatment revealed complete recovery of pleuropericardial effusion. Discussion - Pleural and pericardial effusions are rarely seen complications related to the use of valproic acid. It must also be kept in mind that valproic acid causes a potential for such side effects which can be blamed etiologically when the other possibilities for patients are excluded.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[50 years of tolperisone in clinical practice]


[Tolperisone is a centrally acting muscle relaxant that has both antispasticity and antispasmodic properties, but lacks the sedative effect of other muscle relaxants. In the past 50 years, millions of patients with spasticity due to neurological diseases and painful reflex muscle spasm have been treated with this drug. Although few welldesigned, double blind, controlled clinical trials have been published, the efficacy of tolperisone in the treatment of both spasticity and painful reflex muscle spasm is convincing. The tolerability and safety of the drug are well documented. In this respect, one of its greatest advantages is that it has no sedative effect, does not lengthen reaction time, and does not interfere with driving. Further, well-designed controlled trials are clearly required for widening the use of this excellent drug.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hungarian dialysis statistics: changing trends in the renal epidemiology]


[In the last 30-35 years, dialysis care in Hungary has been a major development: both the incidence and prevalence of patients have increased year by year. Over the last decade, growth has slowed and is becoming more and more stabilized (similar trends can be seen in dialysis statistics in developed countries). Behind the dialysis indication the acute kidney injury (AKI) is more common than the end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The latter incidence has been stable for last 6 years (200-230 patient/million population). The annual average growth rate of prevalent dialysis patients was only 0.9%/year in the last 6 years. Among prevalent dialysis patients, the proportion of diabetic patients has remained unchanged for 10 years (26-27%), but those have increased who had hypertension nephropahty. The average age of incident and prevalent dialyzed patients has decreased gradually over the past 8 years (between 2009 and 2017 incident rate was from 67.1 to 63.0 years, prevalent rate was from 65.6 to 61.8 years). Unfortunately, just over half of the patients who dialyzed due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) have reached dialysis day 91. This is due to the high proportion of patient who was in urgent need of dialysis. In chronic hemodialysis (HD) program, the proportion of patients treated with arterovenous fistulas (AVF) decreases, while the rate of central venous catheter (CVC) users increases. The Hungarian peritoneal dialysis program in Europe is very good. The number of prevalent patients receiving renal replaement therapy (RRT) in Hungary in 2017 was 1005 for 1 million inhabitants.]