Hungarian Radiology

[Paraclinical “röntgen” forum Measurements on x-ray equipments: towards quality and safety - Budapest, June 9th, 2009.]


OCTOBER 20, 2009

Hungarian Radiology - 2009;83(03)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Lifelong learning and teaching]


Hungarian Radiology

[Role of imaging in the managment of colorectal cancer]


[Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer death in Hungary. Diagnosis requires the examination of the entire large bowel by means of radiological and/or endoscopic techniques. Colorectal cancer primarily develops from adenomatous polyp over a period of 10-15 years. Tumour staging is crucial for the prognosis and for the planning of the most suitable anticancer therapy. The role of imaging in colorectal cancer is increasing with the change in complex tumour therapy. With advances in ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques accuracy of imaging has improved. The accuracy of CT improved with the advent of the multislice technique (MDCT). Sensitivity and specificity of CT colonography (CTC) in colon polyps and cancer is over 90%, therefore it is one of the screening tools. Accuracy of the CTC is comparable to the optical colonoscopy, complements conventional colonoscopy well and it is an effective tool in the right hands. Endorectal US (ERUS) depicts the anatomic layers of the rectal wall with high degree of accuracy, therefore it is the best method for the evaluation of the lower tumour stage. High resolution MRI is the most suitable technique for predicting rectal tumor stage, therefore it has been established as the standard for preoperative assessment of rectal cancer.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Colorectal cancer screening: Lessons from the American experience]

BAFFY György, TÁRNOKI Dávid László, TÁRNOKI Ádám Domonkos, BAFFY Noémi

[Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies of our times. The disease takes many years to develop and is typically preceded by polyp formation, which allows timely screening and diagnosis. A number of tests and procedures have been developed to screen for colorectal cancer and its premalignant conditions. However, apparent heterogeneity of the disease, redundancy of the available screening modalities, as well as costs and potential pitfalls of these preventive measures require careful strategic planning. In the United States, recent advances in the campaign for colorectal cancer screening provide important lessons that may guide similar initiatives in Hungary.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Ways of imaging the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor]


[The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR) signal-transduction pathway play a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis. It was originally isolated as a selective mitogen for endothelial cells and as a powerful vascular permeability increasing factor. The vascular imaging techniques make the quantification and localization of blood vessels possible. They have been used to assess blood flow, oxygenation, and vascular permeability. Also, they can be used to examine the molecular and cellular difference in the vascular wall. To evaluate tumour vascularity, a multimodality approach is expanding. VEGF as the primary mediator for vascular-permeability is indirectly measurable with DCE-MRI (dynamic contrastenhanced MRI). MRI investigation can determine the ratio of deoxyhemoglobin/oxyhemoglobin in order to localize the hypoxic regions in vivo (BOLD [blood oxygen-level dependent] sequence and OMRI [Overhauser MRI]). In molecular MRI (mMRI), contrast agent-mediated alteration of tissue relaxation times can allow for the detection and localization of molecular disease markers. To localize the expression of VEGFR with SPECT and PET, antibodies and VEGF isoforms can be marked with isotopes. VEGFR is an excellent candidate for targeted ultrasound imaging since it is almost exclusively expressed on activated endothelial cells. Optical imaging is a relatively cheap method suitable so far primarily for small animal studies.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Portal embolisation prior to liver resection]

MÓZES Péter, MÉSZÁROS György, TÓTH Judit, SÁPY Péter

[INTRODUCTION - By partial embolisation of the vena portae the number of the patients suitable for radical liverresection can be enhanced, the safety of the operation can be increased, the subsequent results improved. The method is based on the experience that when blocking the circulation of the portal system in special segments of the liver, the other part of the organ tries to substitute the functional deficiency by hypertrophy. Vena portae embolisation is justified in cases when the liver substance remaining after the planned operation is critically small. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The authors carried out vena portae embolisation at Debrecen University Medical and Health Science Centre since October 2003 on six patients. Assessments were made studying the volume of the whole liver, the lobe affected by embolisation and that of the unaffected lobe, by CT-volumetry. The average age of the patients (four men and two women) was 63 years (51-67 years). The hepatic tumour was an extended metastasis localised to one lobe in five cases, and HCC in one of the patients. In each case we carried out closing the right lobe’s portal system. RESULTS - In five cases the left lobe showed increase following the portal embolisation of the right lobe intended to be removed. On the average four-six weeks passed between the two CT-examinations. The growth of the left lobe was an average of 42% (min. 11.8%, max. 75.6%). CONCLUSION - In selected patients the embolisation of the vena portae system of the tumorous liver-segments is a suitable method for enlargening the size of the liver substance remaining after an extensive resection.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]