Hungarian Radiology

[High resolution sonography for the examination of peripheral nerves]


DECEMBER 15, 2008

Hungarian Radiology - 2008;82(07-08)

[High-frequency sonography is an important method for the imaging of the peripheral nerves, even though it is rarely used. For the examination of superficially located nerves, currently available transducers with frequencies between 12-17 MHz offer a better axial resolution than even MRI. Sonography is superior to MRI especially for the examination of nerves of the upper extremity. Main indications for the sonography of the nerves are entrapment syndromes, traumatic injuries of the nerves, tumors, polyneuropathies and sonographically-guided interventions. The sensitivity of sonography and electrophysiology in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome are comparable. The combination of ultrasonography with electrophysiological studies increases the diagnostic yield in carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes. Sonography provides information for planning of peripheral nerve surgery and is helpful in evaluating postoperative complications. In selected cases, sonography can detect nerve lesions that require operative therapy earlier than electrophysiology. With technical enhancements, highfrequency ultrasonography is gaining increasing importance in the routine diagnostics of peripheral nerves lesions.]



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Professor Tibor Szenes, Founder of the Szeged X-Ray Clinic, was Born 100 Years Ago]


Hungarian Radiology

[European Congress of Pediatric Radiology Edinburgh, 4-7 June 2008]


Hungarian Radiology

[A Deliberate Violation of Symmetry My Entry for the Ig Nobel Prize]


Hungarian Radiology

[Anniversary Meeting of the Mihály Erdélyi Memorial Medal Foundation The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Mihály Erdélyi MD Budapest, 7 February 2008]

BOHÁR László

Hungarian Radiology

[Role of contrast enhanced ultrasound in clinical practice]


[Ultrasound contrast agents consist of micro bubbles which can be visualized during their short intravascular and parenchymal transit time. An US system with special software, a small amount of intravenous contrast agent and a skilled operator is necessary to produce a successful study. This method can also be introduced into the clinical practice in our country. Careful indications and well performed studies can reduce the number of unnecessary CT and MR studies and biopsies. Contrast enhanced US has special clinical significance in the detection and characterization of focal liver masses, monitoring drug and local treatment effects of different abdominal tumors and in the case of injury of abdominal parenchymal organs.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in childhood]

LIPTAI Zoltán, ÚJHELYI Enikő, MIHÁLY Ilona, RUDAS Gábor, BARSI Péter

[Background and purpose - Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder often preceded by infection or vaccination. The purpose of the study was the systematic analysis of clinical, radiological and microbiological profiles of children treated at Szent László Hospital, and the comparison of findings with literature data. Methods - Demographic, infectological, clinical, radiological, laboratory and virological data of patients treated and followed-up between 1-Jan-1998 and 30-June-2008 were reviewed and analysed. Results - 19 children met diagnostic criteria. Their mean age was 6.8 years. A prodromal illness - mostly febrile viral infection, upper respiratory infection or chickenpox - preceded neurological symptoms in 17 patients. All had polysymptomatic encephalopathy, 2 children had spinal symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in all but one. A viral etiology was definite in 7 and probable in 8 cases. MRI disclosed white matter changes in 18, cortical and deep gray matter in 16, cerebellar in 6, brain stem in 14 and spinal cord changes in 2 cases. Repeat MRI performed mean 4 months later showed complete resolution in 6 and partial resolution in 11 patients. 13 patients received high-dose methylprednisolone, 2 of whom were also treated with plasma exchange and 1 with immunoglobulin. 9 children required mechanical ventilation. 2 patients died, 10 recovered without and 7 with sequelae. 2 patients developed further demyelinating events: multiple sclerosis and multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis, respectively. Conclusion - Clinical, radiological and follow-up results were similar to those published in literature however, triggering viruses were identified in a larger proportion of cases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Osteonercosis of the femoral head during pregnancy]

KISS-POLAUF Marianna, TAKÁCS János, TASI Róbert, RÁKÓCZI István

[Osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy is a rare condition. Approximately 40-50 cases have been reported, the first one by Pfeifer in 1957. Avascular osteonecrosis is usually caused by factors that impair the bone’s blood supply (intraosseous arterious or venous occlusion, venous stasis, hypertension in the bone marrow). Owing to the cautious use of radiological imaging techniques during pregnancy and the limited experience with this condition, the correct diagnosis is usually made only retrospectively. Thus, total hip replacement is required in most cases. In the third trimester, MRI examination is safe to perform, and in some cases a simple X-ray should be also considered, as timely avoidance of weight-bearing and other therapeutic interventions might help to prevent the arthroplasty. Here, we would like to present a case observed and treated by us, and to overview the options that could facilitate making the correct diagnosis and finding the appropriate therapeutic program.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Metal objects in the MR]


[During magnetic resonance imaging the patient is exposed to three different types of electromagnetic radiation: static magnetic field, gradient or time varying magnetic fields and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The potential risks associated with performing MRI in patients with ferromagnetic implants, materials, or devices are related to the possibility of movement or dislodgement, to the induction of electrical currents and to the heating. The majority of metallic implants are considered to be safe for MRI, but patients with cardiac pacemakers, ferromagnetic aneurysm clips, cochlear implants, implantable drug infusion pumps should not be examined by MRI.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Regulation of water transport in brain oedema]

DÓCZI Tamás, SCHWARCZ Attila, GALLYAS Ferenc, BOGNER Péter, PÁL József, SULYOK Endre, GÖMÖRI Éva, VAJDA Zsolt

[The study gives an overview on the regulation of cerebral water content and of brain volume. The molecular mechanisms of the development and resolution of various oedema forms are discussed in detail. The physiological and pathophysiological role of the recently discovered molecular water channel proteins aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) as well as the importance of central neuroendocrine regulation by vasopressin and atriopeptin are reviewed based on the relevant literature and personal studies. Quantitative water maps based on the combination of multicompartment- T2, diffusion weighted MRI and T1 studies have proven to be powerful tools for studying new drugs against brain oedema brought about by various neuropathological conditions and for testing their efficacy both in animal experimental and clinical conditions. Non-peptide vasopressin antagonists, atriopeptin agonists and drugs targeting AQP4 are potential new families of oedema-decreasing drugs.]

Clinical Neuroscience


KOVÁCS Norbert, BALÁS István, JANSZKY József, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, NAGY Ferenc, DÓCZI Tamás, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Deep brain stimulation is a widely used technique for the treatment of movement disorders. This method is a breakthrough in treatment of drug-resistant idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor and dystonia. The aim of the present paper is to give an inside overview of the postoperative management like fine tuning of the stimulation and balancing the antiparkinsonian medication. We also discuss the advantage of the use of the (Access Therapy) patient controller. After reviewing the stimulation-related side-effects and their management, the contraindicated medical procedures are discussed.]