Hungarian Radiology

[Experiences from the 4th Nationwide Meeting of Residents - Budapest, 31st January, 2009]


APRIL 07, 2009

Hungarian Radiology - 2009;83(01)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[With renewed outlook and new fortitude]


Hungarian Radiology

[Self-expanding metallic stents in intrahepatic biliary strictures after liver transplantation]

DOROS Attila, NÉMETH Andrea, HARTMANN Erika, DEÁK Pál Ákos, JUHAROSI Gyöngyi, LÉNÁRD Zsuzsa, KOZMA Veronika, GÖRÖG Dénes, GERLEI Zsuzsa, FEHÉRVÁRI Imre, NEMES Balázs, KÓBORI László

[INTRODUCTION - Bile duct complications remain a key problem of liver transplantation. Two main types are recognized: anastomotic and intrahepatic. In cases of anastomotic strictures good results can be achieved with surgery or minimally invasive therapy. Intrahepatic stenosis usually requires retransplantation. In this report the results of intrahepatic metallic stent placements are analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Since 1995, 20 patients with intrahepatic bile strictures were referred for percutaneous treatment. Of 34 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, 33 successful drainages were performed and 58 balloon dilatations were employed to overcome. In 13 patients, 20 metallic stents were implanted. One bleeding complication was successfully treated with selective embolization. RESULTS - The average follow up time was 35 months. 14 patients have no symptoms, 12 of them after metallic stent placements and 4 of them after retransplantation (2 patients had metallic stents at retransplantation). One patient has metallic stent and an external drain waiting for retransplantation. Three patients died after 7 retransplantations. Two patients died on the waiting list, one with and one without external drain. There were no deaths after successful metallic stent placement. CONCLUSION - After meticulous preparations metallic stent placement is safe and effective in intrahepatic biliary stenosis after liver transplantation. The patients can be stabilized till the retransplantation, or it can even be avoided.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis]


[INTRODUCTION - The xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a rare and benign form of lesions associated with diffuse thickening of the gall bladder wall. It is important to recognize it radiologically because it can be mistaken easily for gall bladder carcinoma. The characteristic US, CT and MR findings, however, may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. CASE REPORT - We present the cases of two middleaged female patients suffering from right upper quadrant, radiating abdominal pain for several weeks without occurrence of fever. In both patients, the ultrasound examination revealed marked thickening of the gall bladder wall containing hypoechoic nodules. Further, non-specific sign such as cholecystolithiasis and fine infiltration of the adipose tissue surrounding the gall bladder and dilatation of extrahepatic or intrahepatic bile ducts were visible. On the post contrast CT images, rim enhancement was detectable. MR/MRCP examination showed a sharp delineation of the gall bladder from the liver parenchyma. Both patients underwent cholecystectomy. The pathological examination excluded malignancy and confirmed the diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. CONCLUSION - The characteristic features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (hypoechoic xanthogranulomas in the markedly thickened gall bladder wall and the presence of calculi) can be detected by ultrasound examination. CT or MRI may play an important role in confirmation of the diagnosis of an inflammatory process and provide useful information in exclusion of gall bladder carcinoma.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt implantation in a patient with severe dilatative cardiomyopathy]

SZALÁNCZY Katalin, LÁZÁR István, STEFÁN János, KALÓ Emil

[INTRODUCTION - Indications for TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) are usually portal hypertension induced by alcoholic or viral cirrhosis. Reported patient underwent TIPS because of a rare indication where his rapidly progressing heart failure lead to rapid deterioration of the splanchnic hypertension. CASE REPORT - A 51 years old male was admitted with severe dilatative cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation, generalized edema refractory to conservative treatment, and rapidly worsening hepatic laboratory test results. TIPS implantation achieved improvement of all clinical signs, decreased edema and the patient could finally be discharged. CONCLUSION - TIPS can result in improved quality of life not only in primary hepatic cirrhosis but in other clinical circumstances with portal hypertension.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Difficulties in the diagnosis of ectopic ureter]

KONCZ Júlia, RÉTI Gyula, NYÁRI Edit, SHAIKH M. Shoaib

[INTRODUCTION - Ureter ectopy refers to the distal opening of the ureter at the site of the bladder neck or lower. 70-80% of the ectopic ureters are associated with pyelectasia and duplicated ureters. The incidence of this is 2-3 times higher in females. CASE REPORT - Following is a case report of a boy who was diagnosed with left-sided pyelectasia during a prenatal ultrasound scan. The postnatal ultrasound revealed a duplicated pelviceal cavity and ureter. The upper pole ureter and the pelvis demonstrated dilatation. At 8 months of age a left side heminehprectomy was performed. Two years postoperatively a follow-up ultrasound revealed a dilatation of the ureteral stump on the left side, which progressed. On MCUG the ureteral stump was identified inserting on to the proximal urethra. Cystography and MR urography demonstrated a ureteral stump which inserted on to the urethra. A repeat surgery was performed to remove the stump. Patient is symptom-free ever since. CONCLUSION - In ectopic, non-refluxing ureters long-term follow-up is necessary following heminephrectomy. A ureter stump besides the bladder can cause serious diagnostical difficulties. Also, it is possible that a dilating stump may lead to a reflux not identified earlier. MCUG and MR urography can help to clear delineate the pathology.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

Risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under endoscope

XU Yifan, HE Yuxin , XU Wu, LU Tianyu, LIANG Weibang, JIN Wei

Background – Up to now, the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy remain controversial. Purpose – To analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under an endoscope, and to provide evidence for preventing and controlling the occurrence and development of infections. A total of 370 patients receiving endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2017 were selected. The risk factors related to postoperative intracranial infections were analyzed. The hospitalization lengths and expenditures of patients with and without intracranial infections were compared. Of the 370 patients, 18 underwent postoperative intracranial infections, with the infection rate of 4.86%. Intraoperative blood loss >120 mL, cerebrospinal leakage, diabetes, preoperative use of hormones, macroadenoma as well as surgical time >4 h all significantly increased the infection rate (P<0.05). Preoperative use of antibacterial agents prevented intracranial infection. Compared with patients without intracranial infections, the infected ones had significantly prolonged hospitalization length and increased expenditure (P<0.05). Discussion – It is of great clinical significance to analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infection after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy, aiming to prevent and to control the onset and progression of infection. Intracranial infections after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy were affected by many risk factors, also influencing the prognosis of patients and the economic burden.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]


[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]