Hungarian Radiology

[Dr. György Köteles is 80 years old]


MARCH 22, 2008

Hungarian Radiology - 2008;82(01-02)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Nobel prize scientists- Pioneers in imaging diagnostics]

KISS-TÓTH Emőke, KUN Gáborné, LOMBAY Béla

Hungarian Radiology

[Sessions, 2007 year performance and 2008 year plans of the Hungarian College of Radiologists]

PALKÓ András

Hungarian Radiology

[Supracondylar process syndrome]

PÓTA Zsuzsanna, HUSZANYIK István, KAZAI Sándor, RÓDE László

[INTRODUCTION - Supracondylar process is a rare bone over-growth of atavistic origin. The entity shows several similarities with the tunnel syndromes. CASE REPORT - The case reports originate from the diagnosis and the treatment of two female patients. Both of them presented with elbow region pain, weakness in finger flexion and numbness. The clinical picture, the decrease in the speed of nerve conduction in the region of the supracondylar process and radiological evidence of the process over-growth made the proper diagnosis possible in both cases. Due to the failure of conservative therapy both patients underwent surgery. Careful surgical removal of the process and neurolysis resulted in cessation of symptoms. CONCLUSION - Use of atypical radiographic positioning and flouroscopy might be required to achieve a diagnosis. In patients who do not respond to physiotherapy and local steroid injections, surgical removal of the supracondylar process is indicated which prevents further arterial and nerve degeneration.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Initial experiencies with sonoelastography in the examinations of breast diseases]


[INTRODUCTION - Recently the ultrasound examination of the strain of circumscribed breast diseases has been introduced in the non-invasive breast examination, called sonoelastography. In Hungary, the authors had the first possibility to start with this method. They report on their initial experiences. MATERIAL AND METHODS - 61 circumscribed breast lesions in 41 patients sonoelastographic examinations were performed by Hitachi EUB 6500 system using a EZUTE3 real-time elastography unit. 48 lesions strain-ratio was calculated. 22 masses were verified pathologically (18 benign and 4 malignant) and 39 were considered benign upon the findings of clinical mammography and by follow up. They classified them on the basis of patterns published by Itoh, et al. The examinations were done by three experienced radiologists. The classification was done by consensus. RESULT - The all lesions which were verified pathologically or on the basis of examinations or follow ups were thought benign showed the pattern type from 1 to 3. Most of the cystic lesions showed the streaky cystic pattern. There were small number of malignant lesions in their material, and all of them gave the elastic pattern of 4 and 5. The numbers of strain-ratio of zone lesions with pattern 3 overlapping with the lesions of malignant ones. CONCLUSION - The first results showed that both the coloured elastographic pattern and the quantitative strainratio could be used well in the non-invasive diagnostic procedure of breast lesions. It could increase the diagnostic safety. Larger number of examinations are necessitated to find the exact diagnostic role of this method.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Use of covered stents in the endovascular treatment of extracranial stenosis of the internal carotid artery]


[INTRODUCTION - Significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery is frequently treated with stent placement. With growing clinical experience and usage of finer instrumentation, the incidence of periprocedural complications have reduced in larger centers. Two-thirds of the complications are postprocedural, due to the embolisation through the stent structure. Covered stents seem to be a good option against such embolisation. Our study demonstrates the efficiency, safety and feasibility of covered stent grafts, and the long term outcome of patients who underwent endovascular treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery stenoses, caused by highly embologenic plaques. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Between 2002 and 2003, 30 patients (22 male, 8 female, aged 50-89yrs, mean: 66 yrs) with 30 internal carotid artery stenoses having ipsilateral symptoms and/or stenotic lesions caused by irregular or ulcerated soft plaques or restenosis were treated with self-expanding covered stents (Symbiot, Boston Scientific). Predilatation and protecting devices were not used. Postdilatation was applied in every patient. Mean followup was 60 months (range 57-66 months), by Doppler ultrasonography as well as clinical examination. RESULTS - The degree of stenosis was found to range from 70% to subtotal occlusion. The plaque surfaces were irregular or ulcerated in 70%. The stenotic lesions were up to 30 mm in length. The narrowing of the internal carotid artery never extended to the common carotid artery. The technical success rate of stenting was 100%. The stents could be positioned with an accuracy of 2-3 mm. Periprocedurally, there were no neurological complications or deaths. During follow-up no strokes or stroke-related deaths occurred. Restenosis was found in two patients (6,6%) who underwent successful balloon dilatation. CONCLUSION - Our experience indicates that the covered stent is an efficient periprocedural and postprocedural “protecting device” to prevent neurological complications due to embolizations caused by high-risk plaques in stenotic lesions of extracranial internal carotid artery.]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

Clinical Neuroscience

Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral haemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm


The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

Clinical Neuroscience

Autonomic nervous system may be affected after carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: A possible mechanism for persistence of symptoms after surgery

ONDER Burcu, KELES Yavuz Betul

After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose – The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.

Clinical Neuroscience

Delirium due to the use of topical cyclopentolate hydrochloride


Introduction - Our aim is to present a rare case where a child had delirium manifestation after instillation of cyclopentolate. Case presentation - A 7-year old patient was seen in our outpatient clinic, and cyclopentolate was dropped three times at 10 minutes intervals in both eyes. The patient suddenly developed behavioral disorders along with gait disturbance, and complained of visual hallucinations 20-25 minutes after the last drop. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit and 0.02 mg/kg IV. physostigmine was administered. The patient improved after minutes of onset of physostigmine, and was discharged with total recovery after 30 minutes. Conclusion - Delirium is a rare systemic side effect of cyclopentolate. The specific antidote is physostigmine, which can be used in severely agitated patients who are not responding to other therapies.