Hungarian Radiology

[Decisions affecting the members of the Society]

PALKÓ András

DECEMBER 20, 2002

Hungarian Radiology - 2002;76(06)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Radiology

[Foreign body in the urinary bladder causing diagnostic problem]

LADÁNYI Erzsébet, FEKETE Márta

Hungarian Radiology

[Significance of ultrasound examination in acute abdominal attack of hereditary angioneurotic oedema]

FARKAS Henriette, HARMAT György, KAPOSI N. Pál, KARÁDI István, FEKETE Béla, FÜST György, FÁY Kálmán, VAS Anikó, VARGA Lilian

[INTRODUCTION - Hereditary angioneurotic oedema (HANO) is a rare cause of ascites. As acute abdominal attacks of the disease can mimic surgical emergencies, the prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential. This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound examinations in the differential diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Seventy patients with HANO were followed up for almost a decade. All patients presenting with an acute oedematous attack underwent abdominal ultrasound, which was then repeated 24 and 48 hours after appropriate therapy. RESULTS - 22 patients with acute oedematous attacks with abdominal complaints severe enough to justify hospital admission occurred in the study population. Abdominal ultrasound performed during the attack showed oedematous thickening of the intestinal wall in 80 per cent of cases and invariably demonstrated the presence of free peritoneal fluid in all patients. Rapid symptomatic relief achieved by treatment was accompanied by the significant regression of ultrasound abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS - Demonstration of transitory ascites by abdominal ultrasound is a clue to the diagnosis of an acute abdominal attack of HANO. The possibility of HANO should always be considered whenever unexplained abdominal pain returns with or without ascites.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Craniometry using conventional radiographs]


[I measured the length, width and height of the skull’s hole on standard two-direction radiographs. From these data the volume of the skull's hole can be calculated with high accuracy. I used for calculation the modified formula of sonographic determination of prostate size. Using this measurement method in 1.000 adults (500 male and 500 female) the average skull's hole volume was 1.492 cubic centimetres. In 100 children of 6-7 years (50 boys and 50 girls) average skull's hole volume was 1.423 cubic centimetres.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Facts and questions about EU admission]


Hungarian Radiology

[HoloVizio - threedimensional holographic display of the future]


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[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

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[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

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[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

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Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.