Hungarian Radiology

[Craniometry using conventional radiographs]


DECEMBER 20, 2002

Hungarian Radiology - 2002;76(06)

[I measured the length, width and height of the skull’s hole on standard two-direction radiographs. From these data the volume of the skull's hole can be calculated with high accuracy. I used for calculation the modified formula of sonographic determination of prostate size. Using this measurement method in 1.000 adults (500 male and 500 female) the average skull's hole volume was 1.492 cubic centimetres. In 100 children of 6-7 years (50 boys and 50 girls) average skull's hole volume was 1.423 cubic centimetres.]



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LADÁNYI Erzsébet, FEKETE Márta

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[Significance of ultrasound examination in acute abdominal attack of hereditary angioneurotic oedema]

FARKAS Henriette, HARMAT György, KAPOSI N. Pál, KARÁDI István, FEKETE Béla, FÜST György, FÁY Kálmán, VAS Anikó, VARGA Lilian

[INTRODUCTION - Hereditary angioneurotic oedema (HANO) is a rare cause of ascites. As acute abdominal attacks of the disease can mimic surgical emergencies, the prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential. This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound examinations in the differential diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Seventy patients with HANO were followed up for almost a decade. All patients presenting with an acute oedematous attack underwent abdominal ultrasound, which was then repeated 24 and 48 hours after appropriate therapy. RESULTS - 22 patients with acute oedematous attacks with abdominal complaints severe enough to justify hospital admission occurred in the study population. Abdominal ultrasound performed during the attack showed oedematous thickening of the intestinal wall in 80 per cent of cases and invariably demonstrated the presence of free peritoneal fluid in all patients. Rapid symptomatic relief achieved by treatment was accompanied by the significant regression of ultrasound abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS - Demonstration of transitory ascites by abdominal ultrasound is a clue to the diagnosis of an acute abdominal attack of HANO. The possibility of HANO should always be considered whenever unexplained abdominal pain returns with or without ascites.]

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TLR4 (Toll-like receptor-4) expression and frontal-cingulate volumes in schizophrenia

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Evidence suggests that pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors, TLRs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. TLRs are important in both peripheral immune responses and neuronal plasticity. However, the relationship between peripheral TLR expression and regional brain volumes is unknown in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed 30 drug-naïve, first-episode patients with schizophrenia. TLR4+/TLR1+ monocytes were measured using flow-cytometry. High resolution magnetic resonance images (T1 MRI) were obtained and analyzed with FreeSurfer. Results revealed significant negative correlations between the percentage of TLR4+ monocytes, mean fluorescent intensities, and brain volumes in frontal and anterior cingulate regions. The measures of TLR1+ monocytes did not show significant relationships with regional brain volumes. These results raise the possibility that abnormal TLR-activation is associated with decreased brain volumes in schizophrenia.

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[The majority of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease are treated at specialized movement disorder centers. Currently, there is no clear consensus on how to define the stages of Parkinson’s disease; the proportion of Parkinson’s patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, the referral process, and the clinical features used to characterize advanced Parkinson’s disease are not well delineated. The primary objective of this observational study was to evaluate the proportion of Parkinson’s patients identified as advanced patients according to physician’s judgment in all participating movement disorder centers across the study. Here we evaluate the Hungarian subset of the participating patients. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional, non-interventional, multi-country, multi-center format in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Current Parkinson’s disease status was assessed with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II, III, IV, and V (modified Hoehn and Yahr staging). Non-motor symptoms were assessed using the PD Non-motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS); quality of life was assessed with the PD 8-item Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Parkinson’s disease was classified as advanced versus non-advanced based on physician assessment and on questions developed by the Delphi method. Overall, 2627 patients with Parkinson’s disease from 126 sites were documented. In Hungary, 100 patients with Parkinson’s disease were documented in four movement disorder centers, and, according to the physician assessment, 50% of these patients had advanced Parkinson’s disease. Their mean scores showed significantly higher impairment in those with, versus without advanced Parkinson’s disease: UPDRS II (14.1 vs. 9.2), UPDRS IV Q32 (1.1 vs. 0.0) and Q39 (1.1 vs. 0.5), UPDRS V (2.8 vs. 2.0) and PDQ-8 (29.1 vs. 18.9). Physicians in Hungarian movement disorder centers assessed that half of the Parkinson’s patients had advanced disease, with worse motor and non-motor symptom severity and worse QoL than those without advanced Parkinson’s disease. Despite being classified as eligible for invasive/device-aided treatment, that treatment had not been initiated in 25% of these patients.]