Hungarian Radiology

[CALENDAR OF RADIOLOGICAL EVENTS, 2008]

JUNE 22, 2008

Hungarian Radiology - 2008;82(03-04)

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Hungarian Radiology

[Significance of MR-angiographic technical parameters and the contrast material in the diagnosis of peripherial vascular diseases]

PAVLIKOVICS Gábor, SHAIKH Shoahib, FARAGÓ Katalin, LOMBAY Béla

[Atherosclerosis presents as a significant problem in everyday healthcare. Thus far, its effect on the vascular bed was measured by means of digital subtraction angiography. More recently, due to advance in hardware, the less invasive techniques like the ultrasound, CT and MRI have into the practice, producing results very similar to those of digital subtraction angiography. Recently, contrast material aimed for blood-pool MR angiography has been introduced. This change presents as a challenge to the operating personnel since the injection rate and the MR sequence parameters need to be adjusted adequately. Also, there is a late-phase breakdown of the contrast material. A further challenge is to interpret the steadystate images. In this article an effort has been made to summarise the basis of MR angiography, with special emphasis on peripheral angiography and suitable contrast materials. Finally, we illustrate our parameters through concrete cases.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Breast Imaging Day - Budapest, 4th April, 2008]

SIMON Éva

Hungarian Radiology

[Successful international course on the imaging diagnostics of the liver; ESGAR Liver Imaging Workshop - Szeged, 18th-20th April, 2008]

HARKÁNYI Zoltán

Hungarian Radiology

[Celebrating Professor Endre Kuhn on his 80th birthday]

WENINGER Csaba, HORVÁTH László

Hungarian Radiology

[Not ‘rounded-off’ birthday - Professor László Horváth, 71 years old]

LOMBAY Béla

All articles in the issue

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Hungarian Radiology

[Calendar of the Society of Hungarian Radiologists, 2011]

Hungarian Radiology

[Az emlődaganatok radiológiai vizsgálatának újdonságai Onco Update, 2007]

FORRAI Gábor, BODOKY György

[Experiences about the breast diagnostic methods are accumulating year-to-year, rapidly. Therefore the current examination algorithm is changing continuously. New diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are entering into the daily practice. Some of them became obsolete, so far their application is becoming a faulty decision. Some other methods become obligatory steps in the diagnostics. These are the reasons why the up-to-date knowledge of the literature is mandatory. Systematic review of the most recent articles of the last two years (January 2005-December 2006) of breast radiological diagnostics and the actual place of the imaging and interventional methods are presented. The following topics are summarized: breast cancer screening with conventional and digital mammography, computer assisted diagnostics (CAD), high risk patients' screening, US, MRI, MSCT, PET/CT, diagnostic interventions, differential diagnostics, percutaneous tumour ablation, therapy-related questions in the diagnostic work up.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE INFLUENCE OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AND ITS TREATMENT ON ASTHMATIC COUGH]

BÖCSKEI Csaba, VICZIÁN Magdolna, BÖCSKEI Renáta, HORVÁTH Ildikó

[INTRODUCTION - Gastroesophageal reflux is known to cause chronic cough and it is also implicated in worsening of asthma. We conducted a prospective study to examine the clinical significance of gastroesophageal reflux disease in asthmatic patients with chronic cough, to analyse the temporal relationship between reflux events and coughing and to assess the effect of esomeprazole treatment on respiratory symptoms and lung function in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS - 126 asthmatic patients with chronic dry cough were studied. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on typical symptoms and the effectiveness of therapeutic test or on pH monitoring, while control group consisted of the patients without gastroesophageal reflux (negative pH results). The study group patients received the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole (40 mg/day for three months) and standard treatment for asthma was continued. During the study pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow) were evaluated four times and the reflux symptom scores as well, using a questionnaire. RESULTS - The results of pH monitoring showed that 64% of cough episodes were related to acid reflux and in 91% of reflux events preceded coughing. Esomeprazole treatment (40 mg/day for three months) not only diminished gastroesophageal reflux symptoms but also improved asthma outcome measures. Baseline pulmonary function values increased significantly together with a decrease in symptom scores and the use of rescue medication. In most patients included in the extended part of the study for another three months, the dose of inhaled steroids could be reduced with sustained therapy against gastroesophageal reflux. CONCLUSION - Our data shows that reflux events preceded coughing in most cases and that treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease caused an improvement in different outcome measures of asthma suggest that gastroesophageal reflux disease worsens asthma and its treatment is of clinical importance in the effective management of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[THE ROLE OF MICRO-AROUSALS IN THE REGULATION OF SLEEP]

HALÁSZ Péter

[This work give a short account about a three decades research of the sleep microstructure. The studies, executed by the Strassbourg, Budapest and Parma schools, paved the way of exploring the participation of micro-arousals in the sleep regulation. It was shown that micro-arousals, not leading to instant arousal but influencing the later course of sleep are weaved into the network of sleep. A certain class of microarousals differs from the traditional desyncronisation-type and in a paradox way result a rebound like mobilisation of sleeplike activity with deltas and K-complexes. The desynchronisation- and synchronisation-type micro-arousals show different distribution along the sleep cyclicity and may play different role in sleep regulation. On the basis of the studies dealing with micro-arousals we can assume that beside the traditional long time constant, brain stem driven tonic chemical regulation, an other phasic regulation, with shorter time constant, underlied by the micro-arousals, also exist. This kind of phasic regulation makes sleep flexible and possible to adapt the actual sleep course to the inner and outer demands. An other important role of micro-arousals in pathological sleeps is to provide a gate for the different pathological events, pinpointing the key-points where these events could be expected in the sleep process.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Selective ultrastructural vulnerability in the cuprizone-induced experimental demyelination]

ÁCS Péter, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Background and purpose - It has been reported that multiple sclerosis has four different neuropathological subtypes, and two of them (type III and IV) are characterized by primary oligodendrocyte loss. However, the exact pathomechanism that lead to oligodendrocyte apoptosis in human demyelinating diseases is still elusive. The copper chelator cuprizone induces primary oligodendrocyte apoptosis and consequent demyelination in well defined areas of the mouse brain. Nevertheless, the precise subcellular events that result in oligodendrocyte cell death in the cuprizone model are still unknown. We aimed to study the ultrastructural alterations that might induce oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the cuprizone experimental demyelination model. Methods - C57BL/6 mice were given cuprizone for two, 21 and 35 days to induce demyelination to investigate early pathological events, and different stages of demyelination. In addition, mice were given cuprizone for 35 days and were allowed to recover for two or 14 days to study early and late remyelination. After the cuprizone treatment, mice were sacrificed and the corpus callosum, the superior cerebellar peduncle, the optic nerve and the sciatic nerve were studied by electron microscopy. Results - The ultrastructural analysis revealed that cuprizone induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis is accompanied by the formation of giant mitochondria in the affected cells in the corpus callosum and in the superior cerebellar peduncle. Apoptosis of the myelin producing cells was present through the whole cuprizone challenge. Severe demyelination occurred after three weeks of cuprizone administration associated with massive macrophage infiltration and astrocytosis of the demyelinated areas. Axons and neurons remained unaffected. Conclusion - The formation of giant mitochondria in myelin producing oligodendrocytes is the first pathological sign in the cuprizone experimental demyelination. Mitochondrium pathology in the cuprizone challenge might serve as a useful model to study the pathomechanism of multiple sclerosis subtypes (III and IV) characterized by primary oligodendrocyte degeneration.]