Clinical Oncology

[The role of EGFR receptor family in the oncological practice]

MÉHES Gábor

DECEMBER 10, 2015

Clinical Oncology - 2015;2(04)

[The EGFR receptor family is a set of membrane tirosine kinase receptors with signifi cant homology which are responsible for cellular activation through intracellular signaling due to ligand binding. The four members of the family (EGFR1, EGFR2/HER2/neu, EGFR3/HER3, EGFR4/HER4) earned special interest in tumor biology while becoming one of the most potent targets of anti-cancer therapies. Changes in the receptor expression or in the kinase activity fundamentally modify cellular functions, survival and tumorigenic potential. Moreover, mutations are associated with reduced or altered treatment effi cacy. The basic function and major genetic and biological mechanisms affecting the function of EGFR receptors and related therapies are subjects of this overview.]

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[Due to the effi cient screening and early detection most breast cancer cases are recognized today in early stage. Approximately 5% of newly detected cases have distant metastasis. In Hungary the situation is worse. Early stage disease will relapse in about 30%, mainly with distant metastasis. Metastatic breast cancer is incurable disease, except some rare, special cases. As systemic therapeutic options are developing rapidly, most breast cancer subtypes can be treated successfully and long term survival is not rare. Primary objective of the treatment is increasing overall survival and quality of life, by decreasing disease related symptoms. In this review we summarize the systemic therapeutic options of metastatic breast cancer according to the subtypes. It is recommended to use an individual treatment plan for every patient.]

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[The most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma is the gastrointestinal tract. The majority of extranodal lymphoma cases are of the non-Hodgkin subtype. Usually, the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by nodal lymphomas is secondary, the primary gastrointestinal localisation is rather rare. The most common pathological types are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of the mucosa-associated tissue (MALT) subtype. Although the primary gastrointestinal lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach is the most frequently involved site. The treatment and prognosis are determinated primarily by the histologic type of lymphoma, the stage of disease and the patient’s age and general condition. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is one of the major risk factors for gastric lymphomas, the presence or abscence of which radically infl uences the effectivity of treatment. In case of HP positivity, HP eradication itself can result in complete remission. In most cases the treatment is immuno- and/or combination chemotherapy, which is performed according to the internationally accepted protocols, specifi c to the type of lymphoma. Radiotherapy plays a lesser role in the treatment of GI lymphomas, while surgery is performed almost only in complicated cases, such as haemorrhage, occlusion or perforation.]

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[Should docetaxel be standard of care for patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer? Pro and contra]

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