Clinical Oncology

[Prevention and therapy of cervical cancer ]

RÉVÉSZ János, BÍRÓ Mátyás

FEBRUARY 15, 2016

Clinical Oncology - 2016;3(01)

[The global incidence of cervical cancer is ~530000, the death rate is ~270000 per year. These data shows, that cervical cancer is the fourth common malignancy in woman worldwide and the leading cancer related death in developing countries. HPV infection is the most important factor of carcinogenesis. Immunisation against HPV can prevent infection, and decrease the cancer incidence. In case of invasive cancer the therapeutic principles are surgery and radiotherapy. In case of high risk patients and/or locally advanced disease the adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytostatic treatment has limited evidences. The traditional cytotoxic therapy and the recent antiangiogenic therapy recommended for patients who have extrapelvic metastasis, residual tumor after primary radiotherapy or recidiv non curable tumor by radiotherapy or radical surgery.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Oncology

[Surgical view on the perioperative oncological treatment of liver metastases originated from colorectal cancer]


[Recent development of surgery resulted in fundamental changes in assessment of resectability of liver tumors. Surgical interventions became more radical and more effective. Colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) represents the most frequent hepatic tumor, where therapeutic options require close collaboration between surgeons and oncologists, and up-to-date approach from both. As the fact is, that CLM is a metastasis of a primary colorectal carcinoma, it seems to be obvious to apply perioperative chemotherapy. Results justify serious precaution. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not improve overall survival. Several data testify, that even perioperative chemotherapy is not indicated in these cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be applied after extended liver resections and two stages hepatectomies. About 20% of patients with initially inoperable CLM may be rendered resecable after systemic chemotherapy. Prognosis of synchron CLM is bad, 5 year survival is less than 20%. Disappearing CLM needs special respect, high level of perfection in liver surgery is essential. After chemotherapy postoperative morbidity is rising, technical diffi culties may occur. Further studies are required to examine possible effect of new targeted molecular therapy-based regimens on resectability. Individualized multidisciplinary treatment planning is mandatory.]

Clinical Oncology


A szerkesztők

Clinical Oncology

[Treatment of mesothelioma - an update]

MOLDVAY Judit, HEGEDŰS Balázs, KOVÁCS Ildikó, DÖME Balázs

[Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura. It is an asbestos related disease with increasing incidence both in Europe and in Hungary. This often fatal disease is characterized by rapid progression, and unfortunately, treatment options are very limited to date. Thus every effort should be made to better understand the pathological and molecular biological characteristics of this disease in order to develop new treatment strategies. This summary reviews the treatment options available today as well as the new therapeutic approaches at the experimental and clinical investigation stage.]

Clinical Oncology

[Oncogene-targeted therapy of non-small cell lung cancer]


[Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths thus presenting one of the main public health related issues globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. Historically, platinum-based chemotherapy was the mainstay of systemic therapy for NSCLC, leading to median survival rates of only 8 to 10 months. Major improvement in the treatment of NSCLC was made through the identifi cation of key genetic aberrations (oncogene drivers) that drive tumor initiation, maintenance and progression and development of highly effective oncogene- directed therapies. Oncogene-directed therapies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in conjunction with well-validated methods for the detection of their targets already represent a standard care of advanced NSCLC patients. Encouragingly, in the recent years a number of additional genetic aberrations have emerged as novel molecular targets with potential therapeutic implications in lung cancer. In this review a comprehensive overview of standard oncogene-directed therapies of advanced NSCLC is provided, challenges in overcoming resistance to those therapies are discussed and novel oncogene-directed therapies under development are briefl y presented.]

Clinical Oncology

[Oncotherapy associated skin toxicity]

OLÁH Judit

[The last decades opened a new era of oncotherapy, including the development of targeted therapies for different subtypes of malignancies. Cutaneous adverse events are the most frequent toxicities among side effects of personally tailored molecular targeted agents. This review summarizes the practical aspects of the clinical characteristics and the optimal treatment of skin-related complications caused by oncological drugs.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Opportunities in drug therapy of biliary tract cancer. Past - present- future]


[Biliary tract cancer is relatively rare tumour, but the dismal prognosis renders it frightful. Biliary tract cancers which consist of gall bladder cancers and bile duct cancers can be cured only with surgery thus it is exceedingly important that the surgery should take place in dedicated centres. The multidisciplinary approach may involve drug therapy, too, as an adjunct to surgery or for palliation. This publication summarizes present data about systemic treatment with some chronological point of view. Starting from therapeutic nihilism of the past and projecting anticipatory development of the future it shows the present state of medical treatment in this patient population.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[An examination of knowledge about cervical cancer Roma women in Hungary]


[The aim of our study was to assess the main reasons for romany women to stay away from cervical cancer screening and knowledge about cervical cancer. Methods: We carried out a quantitative, cross-sectional study with non-probability convenience sampling in 2016. Our sample consists of romany women living in the agglomeration of Nagyatád, Hungary (N=126). In the questionnaire we measured reasons for non-attendance and knowledge. During statistical analysis we calculated descriptive statistics, χc2-test and t-test (p<0,05). Results: Mean age of responders is 37,45±12,05 years. 26,2% of women have not attended any kind of gynecological screening in their life. Mean age of women when they attended for screening for the first time was 24,05±8,96 years (n=91). Main score of the knowledge test is 31,4±3,93 points. According to knowledge level there is no connection between attendants and non-attendants(p>0,05). Conclusions: The lack of knowledge determines the participating willingness, to increase has been possible by organized knowledge transmitter performances.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Imaging studies of gynecological tumor staging]


[The imaging staging follows the surgical FIGO staging system in the classification of gynecological carcinomas taking into account the extent of tumor invasion and lymphnode involvement. The most important prognostic factors which influence treatment are the presence of invasive disease and lymphnode metastasis. Imaging techniques for evaluation of gynecological tumor staging are: abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Transabdominal ultrasound is not a reliable staging modality for gynecological tumors. Computed tomography is useful in the advanced III and IV stages of diseases, but differentiation between stages I and II is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging showed excellent diagnostic accuracy in determining adnex masses, in the assessment of cervical as well as endometrial and ovarian cancer extension. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior in comparison to computed tomography and ultrasound, in both early and advanced stage disease. Evaluation of lymph-node involvement using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging rely only size criteria, which is not reliable indicator of tumor involvement.]

Clinical Oncology

[Liquid biopsy in clinical oncology – fine-tuning precision medicine]

PRISKIN Katalin, PINTÉR Lajos, JAKSA Gábor, PÓLYA Sára, KAHÁN Zsuzsa, SÜKÖSD Farkas, HARACSKA Lajos

[The classical method of genetically characterising a tumour requires tissue biopsy with which a small sample is removed from the affected organ. This sample represents the tumour in the further analyses. However, the localised nature of sample collection limits representative characterisation. The so-called circulating tumour DNA, isolated from blood plasma after a simple sample collection, potentially enables the oncological analysis of all tumour tissues carrying genetic alterations that can be identifi ed as markers. In order to maximally exploit the potentials of circulating tumour DNA, we must adjust the analytical tools to its specifi c features. The preanalytical handling and storage of the sample signifi cantly infl uences its further usability. In order to be able to detect a potential mutation in a mostly wild-type background, the development of new, specifi c methods is needed, most of which are based on next-generation sequencing techniques. In the past decades, the pronounced decrease in the costs of such techniques led to an accumulation of an immense amount of genetic information on tumorigenesis. Due to the development of sequencing technologies, the turnaround times of tests also decreased enabling their employment in routine care besides research. Starting from our research, this can be realised via three approaches: technological development, the implementation of our already existing diagnostic methods in liquid biopsy, and the construction of well-planned disease-specifi c gene panels. Based on international trends and our experience in serum diagnostics, we are certain that liquid biopsy will become a central pillar of oncological screening and precision oncology in the near future.]

Clinical Oncology

[Targeted therapy of the clear cell renal cancer ]


[The renal cell cancer is among the ten most frequent cancers in developed countries. Its inci dence rate continuously increased until recently. On the other hand, survival parameters of renal cell cancer patients considerably improved in the last decade due to early diagnosis and developments in the treatment of irresectable disease. Huge progress had been made in understanding of the biological background of this chemo- and radiotherapy resistant disease, leading to the introduction of drugs in fi rst and further line treatment acting on VEGF and mTOR signal transduction pathways. Simultaneously, the era of widespread cytokine treatments had been ended. Recent studies had ensured the introduction of several drugs with new mechanism of action (MET, AXL; FGFR, PD-1 inhibition) into the therapy; these new advances completely changed the treatment landscape of RCC further improving progression free and overall survival. In this publication a review of data regarding the targeted treatment of clear cell renal cancer will be provided and as of our recent knowledge therapeutic positions of different drugs used will be discussed.]