Clinical Oncology

[Prevention and therapy of cervical cancer ]

RÉVÉSZ János, BÍRÓ Mátyás

FEBRUARY 15, 2016

Clinical Oncology - 2016;3(01)

[The global incidence of cervical cancer is ~530000, the death rate is ~270000 per year. These data shows, that cervical cancer is the fourth common malignancy in woman worldwide and the leading cancer related death in developing countries. HPV infection is the most important factor of carcinogenesis. Immunisation against HPV can prevent infection, and decrease the cancer incidence. In case of invasive cancer the therapeutic principles are surgery and radiotherapy. In case of high risk patients and/or locally advanced disease the adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytostatic treatment has limited evidences. The traditional cytotoxic therapy and the recent antiangiogenic therapy recommended for patients who have extrapelvic metastasis, residual tumor after primary radiotherapy or recidiv non curable tumor by radiotherapy or radical surgery.]

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Clinical Oncology

[Surgical view on the perioperative oncological treatment of liver metastases originated from colorectal cancer]

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[Recent development of surgery resulted in fundamental changes in assessment of resectability of liver tumors. Surgical interventions became more radical and more effective. Colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) represents the most frequent hepatic tumor, where therapeutic options require close collaboration between surgeons and oncologists, and up-to-date approach from both. As the fact is, that CLM is a metastasis of a primary colorectal carcinoma, it seems to be obvious to apply perioperative chemotherapy. Results justify serious precaution. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not improve overall survival. Several data testify, that even perioperative chemotherapy is not indicated in these cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be applied after extended liver resections and two stages hepatectomies. About 20% of patients with initially inoperable CLM may be rendered resecable after systemic chemotherapy. Prognosis of synchron CLM is bad, 5 year survival is less than 20%. Disappearing CLM needs special respect, high level of perfection in liver surgery is essential. After chemotherapy postoperative morbidity is rising, technical diffi culties may occur. Further studies are required to examine possible effect of new targeted molecular therapy-based regimens on resectability. Individualized multidisciplinary treatment planning is mandatory.]

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A szerkesztők

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[Treatment of mesothelioma - an update]

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[Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura. It is an asbestos related disease with increasing incidence both in Europe and in Hungary. This often fatal disease is characterized by rapid progression, and unfortunately, treatment options are very limited to date. Thus every effort should be made to better understand the pathological and molecular biological characteristics of this disease in order to develop new treatment strategies. This summary reviews the treatment options available today as well as the new therapeutic approaches at the experimental and clinical investigation stage.]

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[Oncogene-targeted therapy of non-small cell lung cancer]

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[Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths thus presenting one of the main public health related issues globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. Historically, platinum-based chemotherapy was the mainstay of systemic therapy for NSCLC, leading to median survival rates of only 8 to 10 months. Major improvement in the treatment of NSCLC was made through the identifi cation of key genetic aberrations (oncogene drivers) that drive tumor initiation, maintenance and progression and development of highly effective oncogene- directed therapies. Oncogene-directed therapies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in conjunction with well-validated methods for the detection of their targets already represent a standard care of advanced NSCLC patients. Encouragingly, in the recent years a number of additional genetic aberrations have emerged as novel molecular targets with potential therapeutic implications in lung cancer. In this review a comprehensive overview of standard oncogene-directed therapies of advanced NSCLC is provided, challenges in overcoming resistance to those therapies are discussed and novel oncogene-directed therapies under development are briefl y presented.]

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[The last decades opened a new era of oncotherapy, including the development of targeted therapies for different subtypes of malignancies. Cutaneous adverse events are the most frequent toxicities among side effects of personally tailored molecular targeted agents. This review summarizes the practical aspects of the clinical characteristics and the optimal treatment of skin-related complications caused by oncological drugs.]

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