Clinical Neuroscience

[Vasomotor function tests in sclerosis in multiple sclerosis ]

HUSZÁK István1, SZILÁRD János1, BOGDÁN Ernő1

OCTOBER 01, 1961

Clinical Neuroscience - 1961;14(10)

[1. The biogenic amines acting on the circulatory system : noradrenaline, histamine and acetylcholine do not cause greater or lesser changes in blood pressure in the first phase of their action compared to controls. 2. The counter-regulatory actions of these substances are exaggerated and more persistent in Sm compared to controls. 3. The onset of homeostasis is delayed, especially in the "thrust" phase of Sm. 4. In contrast to histamine, an opposite reaction to Sm is observed in several cases. ]


  1. Szegedi Orvostudományi Egyetem Ideg és Elmekórtani Klinika



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Clinical Neuroscience

[Results of temporal epilepsy surgery in cases of deep-seated foci]

FÉNYES István, ZOLTÁN László, FÉNYES György

[We evaluated the surgical outcomes of 34 patients with temporal epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy with removal of deep anatomical structures. Cases of traumatic etiology with well-circumscribed macro- or evaluable micro-anatomical ablation were excluded from our data. EEG studies revealed deep temporal epileptogenic foci in the vast majority of cases. Catamnestic processing of the postoperative period showed that the surgical outcome of our cases was "good" in 56% and "poor" in 44%. The number of "unchanged" cases did not exceed 20%. Preoperative EEG is not a reliable indicator of surgical prognosis: many of our patients with EEG abnormalities considered unfavourable improved greatly as a result of surgery and vice versa. The good surgical outcomes in our cases are not always faithfully reflected by postoperative EEG curves; the same can be said about our poor surgical outcomes. From this we can conclude that an EEG curve with a poor prognosis is not necessarily a contraindication for performing temporal epilepsy surgery. In a considerable percentage of such cases we have achieved good or even excellent results. However, in our opinion, even in cases of poor outcome, it was worthwhile to perform the surgery because epilepsy is a disease that usually places a very high burden on the patient and his environment, and because its mortality is so low that the patient is not put at serious risk. Most of the EEG recordings are performed by Prof. Ferenc Obál, a smaller part and their scientific processing is the work of one of us (F. I. ). The published photograms were made by Marianne Horváth. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Reflexometric tests adapted for fatigue tests device]


[We have constructed a simple and inexpensive device for the accurate recording of reflex time, which is highly suitable for various types of fatigue tests (work, sports, education, neurosis). ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase determinations in infants and children neurological diseases]


[Glutamic acid oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) activity determinations were performed in 12 cases of acute meningitis and 2 cases of meningitis and encephalitis with remission of pathological neurological symptoms, 42 in total. In all cases, elevated activity was detected in CSF at the beginning of the acute period. The enzyme activity decreased rapidly after treatment in a proportion of cases. In cerebral inflammation of long duration, LGOT values did not show a clear downward trend, and in 2 cases with neurological damage, we found elevated enzyme activity at later follow-up. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Report on the II Czechoslovak Psychiatric Conference Congress ]

FARAGÓ István, KARDOS György, SIMKÓ Alfréd

[The author reports on the II Czechoslovak Congress of Psychiatry. ]

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Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Electrophysiological investigation for autonomic dysfunction in patients with myasthenia gravis: A prospective study


Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Assessing Quality of life of Women with Cervical Cancer After Treatment]


[To assess sexual function, functionality and quality of life in women with cervical cancer. Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative, non-random, purposive sampling of women (N=91) with FIGO stage I/II/III cervical cancer, more than 5 months after last treatment. The study used standard questionnaires with self-designed questions. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, descriptive and mathematical statistics (p<0.05). Completers who received radiotherapy scored significantly higher in functional status (p<0.05) and emotional function than those who did not receive radiotherapy (p<0.05). Completers with lower levels of emotional well-being were significantly more likely to have lower levels of sexual function and higher levels of gynaecological problems (p<0.05). Women affected by cervical cancer often experience somatic and psychological disturbances that reflect on quality of life associated with the disease and treatment.]