Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment of multiple sclerosis with methylprednisolone]

PUNGOR Katalin

SEPTEMBER 20, 1994

Clinical Neuroscience - 1994;47(09-10)

[Comment on the summary by Dr. Samuel Komoly]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Evaluation of gliomas by means of multi-model techniques]


[Gliomas constitute more than 50% of brain tumours. Primary malignant forms recur within 1/2 to 1 year after surgery, and even totally removed benign forms may recur. 50% of recurrent astrocytomas are more malignant than the original tumour. The time elapsing until recurrence strongly depends on the degree of malignity and the surgical removal. However, the age of the patient also plays an important role. Survival of the patient after the establishment of diagnosis also depends on the therapy. Effective treatment requires a knowledge of the degree of malignity as well as differentiation between recurrent tumour and radiation necrosis. CT and MRI scans offer high sensitivity, but poor specificity. Evaluation of tumour metabolism by means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (PET-FDG) helps to determine the degree of malignity of the gliomas, and recurrent tumour can safely be differentiated from necrosis following radiation therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Symptomps, localization of cerebral lesions and aetiology of "letter-by-letter" reading]

SÉRA László, MÁRKUS Atilla, BERNÁTH László

[The symptoms, localization of cerebral lesions and aetiology were analysed literally data of 78 patients suffering from pure alexia (letter-by-letter reading). During the 100 years since Déjerine's first case study on the issue was been published our knowledge on the clinical and pathomorphological characteristics of pure alexia has become more exact. On the one hand, clinical symptomatology has narrowed, eg. right homonymous hemianopsia is no regarded as a compulsory concomintant symptom on the other hand, the locus of damage underlying the symptoms may be at various areas of the brain (eg. subangular), not only at the occipital regions. The role of the posterior trajectory system in the reading process emphasized. In addition however, taking into account recent neuropsychological findings, the importance of other areas of the brain is presumable. In accordance with cognitive psychological research of the reading process it is concluded that it is essential the is for our understanding of the whole reading process that all of these factors are taken into consideration.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Transoral and posterior fixation for inveterated fracture of odontoid process - Case report]


[Combined operative treatment is reported of a fixed malpositioned type III. (according to Anderson-D'Alonso) oblique anterior odontoid process fracture. Due to the ventral and dorsal compression of the spinal canal a part of the dens and a part of the body were transorally removed, and a part of the arch of the atlas also removed by a dorsal approach. The position was fixed by means of a combined method of a transoral Harms-plate and a posterior C.I.-C.II. fransarticular screwing according to Magerl. With this method were achiered proper decompression and stabile C.1.-C.II. arthrodesis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Cerebral aspergillosis]


[Four cases of cerebral aspergillosis are reported. Brain abscesses developed in a patient with chronic alcoholism and pyogenic urogenital process, and in a baby, treated for aplastic anaemia. Haemorrhagic necroses were found in the other two cases, one of them suffered from agressive hepatitis, the other had lymphoid leukaemia. Pulmonary alterations were observed as part of generalised aspergillosis in all the cases. Early diagnosis of pulmonary processes should be emphasized as the disease can hardly be influenced when neurologic symptoms appear.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The effect of the cue-controlled modification of the level of vigilance on the intentional inhibition of seizure in patients with partial epilepsy]


[The cue-controlled modification of the level of vigilance, as one of the methods of self-control appeared to be a practicable therapeutic intervention for the intentional inhibition of epileptic seizures in some special cases of epilepsy. The authors worked out a variation of the above self-control technique, in which the aura imagined in hypnosis was associated with the change in vigilance in patients suffering from partial epilepsy, in order to enable them to try to inhibit the epileptic fits with this associated modification of the level of alertness during auras. The authors report two cases of intractable partial epileptic patients, in which the patients attained the application of this self-control method. The first patient carried out intentional seizure inhibition in 73 cases over one year, reducing the frequency of the fits from the previous 115 to 77. In the second case, the patient was able to decrease considerably even the number of epileptic auras by learning and applying the technique, consequently the number of auras decreased to 7 compared with the 38 fits observed in the previous 8 months, further he was able to terminate the attack in 6 cases out of auras. The authors think, that their method might be useful for a certain group of patients suffering from partial epilepsy to inhibit epileptic attacks, and would mean a new possibility in the management of intractable cases.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]