Clinical Neuroscience

[THE ROLE OF VASOPRESSIN IN CHRONIC STRESS STUDIED IN A CHRONIC MILD STRESS MODEL OF DEPRESSION]

ZELENA Dóra1, DOMOKOS Ágnes1, BARNA István1, CSABAI Katalin1, BAGDY György2, MAKARA B. Gábor1

MARCH 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(03-04)

[Background and purpose - Vasopressin plays an important role in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation as well as in stress-related disorders. A common view suggested that the role of vasopressin is especially important during chronic stresses. Here we tested the hypothesis that vasopressin-deficient rats may be more resistant to the development of chronic hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity after chronic mild stress. Methods - Male vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rats were compared to their heterozygous littermattes. Chronic mild stress consisted of different mild stimuli (e.g. wet cages, restraint) for 6 week. The corticosterone changes were followed by repeated tail cutting and organs and blood were collected from decapitated rats. Results - In controls, chronic mild stress resulted in symptoms of chronic stress state characterized by typical somatic (body weight reduction, thymus involution) and endocrine changes (resting plasma ACTH and corticosterone elevation and POMC mRNA elevation in anterior lobe of the pituitary). Unexpectedly, the lack of vasopressin could not influence any chronic mild stress-induced changes. Conclusion - Somatic changes and endocrine effects of chronic mild stress are similar in control and vasopressin deficient animals. This suggests that either vasopressin is not indispensable for activating the hypothalamo-pituitaryadrenal axis by chronic stress or the absence of vasopressin is compensated by other mediators (e.g. CRH) in Brattleboro rats.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
  2. National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Dedication]

PALKOVITS Miklós

[Dedication 2007;60(03-04)]

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[Editor’s note]

RAJNA Péter

[Editor’s note 2007;60(03-04) ]

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[PROTECTIVE ACTION OF SNAKE VENOM NAJA NAJA OXIANA AT SPINAL CORD HEMISECTION]

ABRAHAMYAN S. Silva, MELIKSETYAN B. Irina, CHAVUSHYAN A. Vergine, ALOYAN L. Mery, SARKISSIAN S. John

[Based on data accumulated regarding the neuroprotective action of Proline-Rich-Peptide-1 (PRP-1, a fragment of neurophysin vasopressin associated hypothalamic glycoprotein consisting of 15 amino acid residues) on neurons survival and axons regeneration and taking into the account that LVV-Hemorphin-7 (LVV-H7, an opioid peptide, widely distributed in different cell types of various tissues of intact rats, including those of the nervous and immune systems) derived from the proteolitic processing of hemoglobin in response to adverse environmental and physiological conditions, possesses the anti-stressor properties, we used histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology to investigate the putative neuroprotective action of Central Asian Cobra Naja naja oxiana snake venom (NOX) on trauma-injured rats. ABC immunohistochemical method and histochemical method on detection of Ca2+- dependent acid phosphatase activity were used for the morpho-functional study. By recording the electrical activity of the signals from the single neurons in and below the SC injury place, NOX venom has been shown to result in the complete restoration of hypothalamic-spinal projections originated from ipsi- and contra-lateral PVN and SON to neurons of SC lumbar part. NOX prevented the scar formation, well observed two months after SC injury in the control rats, resulted in the regeneration of nerve fibers growing through the trauma region, survival of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-immunoreactive (Ir) neurons, and increase of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-Ir nerve fibers and astrocytes in the SC lesion region. NOX was suggested to exert the neuroprotective effect, involving the PRP-1 and LVV-H7 in the underlying mechanism of neuronal recovery.]

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[CENTRAL ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE IN DEHYDRATION]

BAHNER Udo, GEIGER Helmut, PALKOVITS Miklós, LENKEI Zsolt, LUFT C. Friedrich, HEIDLAND August

[To test the effect of dehydration on brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in areas important to salt appetite, water balance and cardiovascular regulation, we subjected rats to dehydration and rehydration and measured ANP concentration in 18 brain areas, as well as all relevant peripheral parameters. Water deprivation decreased body weight, blood pressure, urine volume, and plasma ANP, while it increased urine and plasma osmolality, angiotensin II, and vasopressin. ANP greatly increased in 17 and 18 brain areas (all cut cerebral cortex) by 24 h. Rehydration for 12 h corrected all changes evoked by dehydration, including elevated ANP levels in brain. We conclude that chronic dehydration results in increased ANP in brain areas important to salt appetite and water balance. These results support a role for ANP as a neuroregulatory substance that participates in salt and water balance.]

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[Introduction - (-)Deprenyl is an irreversible inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), which is now used for treatment of Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Evidence suggests that the neuroprotective effect of deprenyl may not be related exclusively to the inhibition of the enzyme MAO-B. Methods - To test the impact of deprenyl on ischemiainduced changes in vitro, we followed the time course of propidium iodide (PI) uptake as an indicator of neuronal cell death as well as the expression of apoptotic factors in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen- glucose deprivation (OGD) for 45 min. Results - The first signs of neuronal death were detected 2 hours after OGD and were extended to all subfields of the hippocampus by 24 hours post-injury. Presence of deprenyl (10-9 M) significantly delayed the cell death induced by the insult. Exposure of control cultures to deprenyl significantly increased the abundance of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNAs as revealed by RT-PCR. OGD resulted in an elevation of anti-apoptotic factors, while the expression of pro-apoptotic bax remained unchanged. Conclusion - These data suggest that deprenyl is neuroprotective in an in vitro model of ischemia. Although deprenyl upregulates the expression of Bcl-2 under basal conditions, its effect on anti-apoptotic factors is not significantly manifested during OGD.]

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