Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of succinimides in the treatment of childhood epilepsy]

KISZELY Katalin1, MÁTTYUS Adorján1

MARCH 01, 1967

Clinical Neuroscience - 1967;20(03)

[We report on 42 children with epilepsy treated with Zarontin (Suxinutin) and Celontin, who had defied all therapies until then. 9 of 11 "classic" petit mal (3 c/s spike-wave) were seizure-free, 2 improved greatly. 7 of 13 children with petit mal varians EEG became seizure-free, 4 improved greatly. Of 9 cases with "other generalised" EEG (clinically mostly mixed GM and PM), 4 had no seizures, 1 had a severe seizure disorder. Of 8 focal epilepsies, 1 improved moderately, 2 greatly. Side effects were unpleasant, but no bone marrow, liver or kidney lesions occurred. Based on therapeutic results, succinimides are considered to be very effective and relatively non-toxic compounds, provided that they are administered under constant supervision and on the basis of an appropriate indication.]


  1. Országos Ideg- és Elmegyógyintézet Gyermekpsychiatriai Osztálya és a Heim Pál Kórház Gyermekneurológiai Osztálya



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on the surgical management of posterior-scalene meningiomas ]

ZOLTÁN László, FÉNYES István

[Authors have tried to provide some data on the surgical management of infratentorial meningiomas based on data from 41 of their own patients and literature reviews. Their experience, together with the available literature data, suggests that the greatest possible radicality should be carried through in the surgical resolution of posterior-scalene meningiomas. They are aware that the neurosurgeon has always tried to perform complete excision of any tumour, but especially extracerebral tumours, within the limits of possibility. However, the assessment of the possibility of radicality is not an absolute concept. It depends, first and foremost, on the use of one's own experience and that of the literature in a given situation to determine the mortality rate and the manner and quality of recovery from similar operations carried out up to that point. When considering the surgical solution of posterior meningiomas in the future, they recommend their modest experience: in evaluating the surgical situation, the chosen method should preferably be radical extirpation, even if this seems to be too high a risk in the given situation. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Acute necrotizing encephalitic herpes virus encephalitis of childhood ]


[The author describes the histopathological picture of a fatal encephalitis of a 3 and a half year old girl child, which has 4 features: 1. extensive meningocortical massive infiltration, 2. diffuse coagulative necrosis of the cortex, 3. reactive glial-mesenchymal proliferation, 4. inclusion bodies. On the basis of a combined consideration of the clinical and pathological picture, his diagnosis is herpes virus encephalitis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[About Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ]


[The authors describe 5 patients with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. No neurological symptoms other than the classic symptom triad were observed. The clinical features and histological changes of the disease are reviewed, and questions of aetiology and therapy are addressed. We would like to thank Dr. György Czappán, Adjunct Professor, for kindly allowing us to present case 5. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Alcoholism and endogenous psychoses]


[Chronic alcoholism is not a nosological category, but a clinical umbrella term: it encompasses different syndromes of habitual drunkenness and of real and symptomatic alcoholism, which are built up by a combination of co-pathogenic factors. Authors have studied cases of symptomatic alcoholism where daily or periodic alcohol abuse is associated with other psychiatric pathologies. They report on their studies of coincidences of endogenous psychoses and alcoholism. On the basis of the literature and 23 cases they observed, they identified five possibilities for typical forms of pathoplastic interactions between schizophrenia and alcoholism, which they described and illustrated with an example. On the basis of a psychopathological analysis of their cases, they have shown, on the one hand, how the clinical picture of atypical alcoholic psychosis is modified by latent schizophrenia and, on the other hand, how the organic psychosyndrome of chronic alcohol intoxication, leading to a specific emotional incontinence and personality changes, masks or prevents in some cases the more severe emotional blunting, the deepening of autism and the extinction of social contacts. Therefore, the prognosis of "alcoholic" schizophrenics seems to be more favourable than that of untreated schizophrenics. The frequency of coincidences between cyclothymia and alcoholism was approached from the cyclothymia perspective, in contrast to previous data. They found alcohol abuse in 19 of their 100 non-selected cases of manic-depressive patients, and in eight of these cases there was an interaction between the two disorders that led to alcohol habituation, i.e. habitual drinking. They observed a close pathogenetic relationship between cyclothymia and dipsomaniac syndrome in their patients and noted that the particular forms of abuse and intoxication associated with the immune phase, resembling manic or depressive exaltation, are important signs for the correct diagnosis and timely treatment of patients. It has been pointed out that, unlike the coincidences of schizophrenia and alcoholism, where in some cases pathoplastic interactions are found that modify the prognosis of the dual illness, but presumably only pathoplastic interactions are found, endogenous and endoreactive disturbances of emotional life are also involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholism syndromes, especially in women.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Study of diencephalon function in elderly (involutional) depression]

LÁNG Sándor, HAITS Géza

[The authors report their studies in involutional depression with appropriate controls and verified by mathematical-statistical calculations. In elderly depressive states, biochemical changes can be detected in patients in the body. These changes are mainly manifested in the abnormal running of sugar curves following carbohydrate loading and reduced reactivity of adrenal cortex function. After recovery, most of the abnormal symptoms disappear.]

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Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer and non-Alzheimer dementias


In aging societies, the morbidity and mortality of dementia is increasing at a significant rate, thereby imposing burden on healthcare, economy and the society as well. Patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and life expectancy are greatly determined by the early diagnosis and the initiation of available symptomatic treatments. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have been the cornerstones of Alzheimer’s therapy for approximately two decades and over the years, more and more experience has been gained on their use in non-Alzheimer’s dementias too. The aim of our work was to provide a comprehensive summary about the use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimers’s dementias.