Clinical Neuroscience

[The problem of compensation for occupationally mentally ill people]


JULY 01, 1959

Clinical Neuroscience - 1959;12(07)

[We can state the following in the strongest terms : 1. employment of the mentally ill is absolutely necessary, because employment has a positive effect on the patients and on the course of the illness. 2. to enable patients to carry out productive work effectively, from both a medical and an economic point of view. 3. patients should be "rewarded" in proportion to the work they do. 4. It would be advisable to apply uniform national principles for compensation. Here, of course, the living conditions of patients and the work done must be taken into account very carefully. The same 'pay' should be given for the same work in the same circumstances. 5. The problem needs to be further examined in order to find the most appropriate approach to both the amount and the method of payment. ]


  1. Egészségügyi Minisztérium Munkatherápiás Intézet, Pomáz



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[The diagnostic significance of variations in the course of the cerebral artery antica]


[In our cases, we investigated variations in the anterior branch of the cerebri, which can sometimes mimic tumours in the corresponding region. Their differentiation is possible only on the basis of other angiographic features and clinical examination. It is probably not a secondary vascular lesion but a developmental anomaly.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Ocular myopathy (Kiloh-Nevin)]

MAGYAR István, GRÓSZ István, ASZALÓS Zoltán

[The authors briefly review the literature on ophthalmoplegia externa chronica progressiva. On the basis of clinical, objective biopsy, biochemical, EMG findings, they consider the disease to be confirmed and the name ocular myopathy proposed by Kiloh-Nevin to be justified. In the light of the biochemical data (which are abundant in the literature of recent years), the pathogenesis is considered to be due to a disturbance in muscle metabolism.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The clinic of internal carotid artery thrombosis]


[1. Due to the increasing prevalence of angiogpraphy, carotid internal carotid artery occlusion is being diagnosed more frequently and earlier. We report 13 angiography-verified cases compared with literature data. 2. The aetiology of the pathology often includes vascular diseases (arteriosclerosis, thrombangitis obliterans, arteritis lueticus) and less frequently trauma and embolism. Different aetiological factors may be involved. CIT 3: The possibility of CIT if : a vascular catastrophe with relatively rapid remission occurs in a male patient, mostly middle-aged, usually with normal blood pressure, after symptoms suggestive of "intermittent circulatory insufficiency of the carotid system". Auxiliary diagnostic procedures include carotid sign, palpation of carotid pulsation in the neck, ophthalmodynamometry and EEG. 4. The diagnosis is ensured by the absence of carotid artery angiogram. The picture of carotid artery occlusion may be mimicked by the picture of constricted carotid artery spasm, cerebral circulatory weakness due to high cerebral pressure increase. Sometimes the location of the occlusion on imaging does not correspond exactly to the anatomy. 5 The development of clinical signs and prognosis of the disease are influenced by the anatomy of the circulus arteriosus Willisi, the degree of collateral circulation developed, the time course of the occlusion and general circulatory factors. 6. The pial collateral circulation, which develops as a result of intraluminal pressure drop, oxygen tension drop and blood PH shift, is maintained only with adequate general tensiosyncope, so that in the acute stage, but also in the chronic stage, it is very important to ensure adequate tensiosyncope in addition to cerebral vasodilatation. The results of anticoagulant therapy are uncertain. Surgical solutions include end-end anastomosis, thrombectomy for short segmental occlusion, and bypass of the stenosed segment with plastic tubing for partial carotid occlusion. It is assumed that in such cases, restoring the circulation, in addition to the so-called structure oxygen, will provide the oxygen necessary for function and thus improve neurological symptoms. An early diagnosis of the pathology, preferably at the stage of "intermittent carotid insufficiency", is important for possible surgical therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery with unusual course and thromboembolic exit]


[The problems related to intracranial aneurysms are very diverse, covering a large literature. Their prevalence in the literature is highly variable: from 0.1% to 2%. In this paper, apart from describing our case, we will only deal with problems that our case study provides some answers to. ]

All articles in the issue

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[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Operational Efficiency Investigation from APN Perioperative Perspective]


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