Clinical Neuroscience

The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke

FINNSDÓTTIR Herdis1,2, SZEGEDI István1, OLÁH László1, CSIBA László1

NOVEMBER 30, 2020

Clinical Neuroscience - 2020;73(11-12)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.73.0367

Review

Background: This overview provides a summary of the applications of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in ischemic stroke. Results: A fast-track neurovascular ultrasound protocol has been developed for detecting occlusion or stenosis. The technique is more reliable in the carotid area than in the posterior circulation. By monitoring the pulsatility index the in­crea­sed intracranial pressure can be diagnosed. TIBI score was developed for grading residual flow. TCD has been shown to accurately predict complete or any recanalization. Regarding recanalization, TCD has a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 96%, a negative predictive value of 78% and an overall accuracy of 91%, respectively. Sonothrombolysis seemed to be a promising application but randomized controlled trials have shown that it does not improve clinical outcome. TCD examination can detect microembolic signals (MES) which are associated with an increased risk of stroke. Micro­em­boli were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and during carotid endarterectomy. The number of microemboli can be decreased by antithrombotic therapy. Contrast en­chan­ced examination and Valsalva maneuver with continuous TCD monitoring can accurately screen for right-to-left shunt.

AFFILIATIONS

  1. University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Debrecen, Hungary
  2. Landspítali - National University Hospital of Iceland, Department of Surgery, Reykjavík, Iceland

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