Clinical Neuroscience

[State of the art neurointerventional treatment of intracranial vascular anomalies]

SZIKORA István1, BERENTEI Zsolt1, MAROSFŐI Miklós1, KULCSÁR Zsolt1, GUBUCZ István1

MARCH 25, 2009

Clinical Neuroscience - 2009;62(03-04)

[Haemorrhagic stroke is frequently caused by rupture of intracranial vascular anomalies. The role of minimally invasive therapy in the treatment of such lesions has increased dramatically within the past two decades. The purpose of this study is to summarize the pathology and clinical features of these anomalies and to overview the potential applications of neurointerventional techniques in their treatment. Endovascular therapy is the first choice of treatment for most intracranial aneurysms. Both pial and dural arteriovenous malformations are being treated by endovascular techniques, but the combination of different modalities (such as endovascular, direct surgery and radiosurgery) is frequently applied. Capillary malformations require surgical removal and venous anomalies do not allow for any type of invasive treatment. State of the art therapy of intracranial vascular anomalies require institutions equipped with appropriate imaging facilities and having equal access to both conventional neurosurgical and neurointerventional techniques with ample experience and case load.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Országos Idegtudományi Intézet, Budapest

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Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Interhemispheric asymmetry of diffusion parameters in the human brain]

WALTER Norbert, HORVÁTH Ildikó, VANDULEK Csaba, BERÉNYI Ervin, BOGNER Péter, TÓTH Lilla

[Our aim was to study the hemispheric asymmetry of the human brain through the simultaneous measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values within a homogeneous sample in regards to the gender, age and handedness. Method - Eleven young women were included in our diffusion study performed on a 1.5 T MR scanner. We calculated the ADC and FA values in nine-nine region of interest points of the brain. The diffusion values were measured symmetrically in the right and left hemisphere of the brain and were then statistically compared to detect interhemispheric asymmetry. Results - We did not find any significant differences between the data of the two hemispheres in regards to the ADC values. However, we detected a significant right sided asymmetry in case of the globus pallidus in FA values (p=0.04). Conclusion - Our results of our study of young women suggest that diffusion asymmetry does not appear in case of ADC values and only slightly (in one ROI in our study) in FA values.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Account on the 17. Congress of the Hungarian Society of Neuroradiology and on the position of neuroradiology in Hungary today]

BARSI Péter

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuroradiological Division in the European Union]

BARSI Péter

Clinical Neuroscience

[Current issues of neuroimaging diagnostics of multiple sclerosis]

BAJZIK Gábor

[Magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been routinely used in diagnostics and follow-up of multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings are incorporated into the current diagnostic criteria of the disease. International guidelines were created aiming to define the indication, timing, minimum requirements and interpretation of magnetic resonance examination in multiple sclerosis. In Hungary, there is a lack of widely-accepted standardized protocol, therefore presenting the magnetic resonance diagnostic criteria and the international guidelines may prove useful. It may also point towards consideration of a national guideline.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Noninvasive imaging in the diagnosis of cerebral sinus thrombosis]

[Cerebral venous thrombosis is a severe, but potentially reversible disease, when it is promptly recognised and treated. Due to its varied and many aetiological factors and clinical manifestations, non-invasive radiological imaging plays a key role in the diagnostic procedure. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, CT angiography (CTA), MR angiography - such as time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) angiography - are appropriate techniques for detecting cerebral venous flow and brain parenchymal changes. To achive adequate diagnosis timely it is necessary to have a correct knowledge of the venographic techniques, the temporally altering appearance of the thrombus, and the differential diagnostic problems that may occur. In our article, we summarized these characteristics by recent international publications and our own clinical observations and propose recommendations regarding the examination protocol of the dural sinus thrombosis.]

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Combination of severe facial and cervical vascular malformation with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

FALUDI Béla, IMRE Marianna, BÜKI András, KOMOLY Sámuel, LUJBER László

The combination of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation within the head and neck region is a rare condition, and interestingly, only a few cases have recently been published. Propagation of the vascular mass to the larynx and pharynx can cause breathing and swallowing difficulties. Due to these sypmtoms, examination and initiation of appropriate therapy for such patients are indeed challenging. We reviewed the literature available and present our case of a 64 year old woman emphasizing the complaints of sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation of the face and neck region. Polygraphic examination detected severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The MR examination of the neck revealed extensive vascular mass narrowing the pharyngo-laryngeal region, thereby causing temporal bone destruction on the right side with intracranial propagation. ENT examination demonstrated significant narrowing of the pharyngeal lumen and the laryngeal aditus caused by multiple hemangiomas. CPAP titration showed the minimalization of the apnea-hypopnea index on the effective pressure level. Regular CPAP usage resulted in diminishing a majority of the patient’s complaints. Our examination clearly demonstrates, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome coupled with significantly obstructing vascular malformation in the head and neck region can be effectively treated safely with a CPAP device, if surgical therapy is not possible. We summarized our findings and the data available in the literature to set up recommendations for the appropriate examination and therapy (including mask fit, etc.) of vascular malformations and hemangiomas causing pharyngo-laryngeal obstruction.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurointerventional treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the Kaposvár experience]

RADNAI Péter, SZŐTS Mónika, RÁDAI Ferenc, HORVÁTH Gyula, VARGA Csaba, FOGAS János, SZÖRÉNYI Péter, HORVÁTH Zoltán, BAJZIK Gábor, MOIZS Mariann, REPA Imre, NAGY Ferenc, VAJDA Zsolt

[Aim of the study - In the present study, we report procedural and mid-term functional outcome data on the first 50 neurointerventional treatments of acute ischemic stroke in the Kaposi Mór County Hospital, Kaposvár, Hungary. Materials and methods - Endovascular recanalization of occluded large cervical and intracranial arteries was performed following an unsuccessful intravenous lysis or when intravenous lysis was contraindicated. A control cohort was retrospectively formed by analyzing data of 16 patients who has been unsuccesfully treated with iv. lysis before neurointervention was available in our hospital. Results and conclusion - Recanalization rate was 84% and major complication rate was 2% in the neurointerventional group. Mid-term good functional outcome, defined as mRS 0-2, was achieved in 44% in the neurointerventional and in 13% in the intravenous lysis group, after 11.5 and 39.7 months follow-up period, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed patient age as the strongest predictive factor of good functional outcome. Our data shows that neurointerventional treatment of acute ischemic stroke gives substantially improved functional outcome, in accordance with the results of the recently published international randomized trials.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.