Clinical Neuroscience

[Spinal paralysis caused by electrical trauma in cats]

KÓMÁR József1, IFJ. KÓMÁR Gyula1

NOVEMBER 01, 1965

Clinical Neuroscience - 1965;18(11)

[Authors have observed spinal paralysis in a cat caused by 220 V electric shock. The condition is thought to be related to Panse's spinal atrophic paralysis. The clinical presentation of the case is supported by histopathological studies. The expected neurological consequences of electrocution are reviewed, and the pathology and pathomechanism of electrocution are discussed. The development of Panse's syndrome is associated with the specific vascularity of the spinal cord, based on the conclusions drawn from their case. We would like to thank Ernő Guzsal, assistant professor, for the preparation of the microphotographs. ]


  1. Fővárcsi István Kórház Idegosztálya és a Fővárosi Központi Állatkórház



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Megfigyelések a mittenes alvás klinikai diagnosztikai értelmezésére vonatkozóan]


[Based on our analysis of one hundred patients with mittening, it seems that mittening sleep is indicative of a personality disorder manifested by recurrent psychic decompensations and conduct disorder at the level of organic cerebral lesions. Mitten sleep is not a disorder associated with a single clinical pathology unless it occurs in combination with the following factors : 1. a personality disorder with intermittent neurotic or psychotic decompensations or behavioural disturbances. 2. pathological vegetative phenomena. 3. diffuse cerebral lesions (ventricular dilatation and/or cortical atrophy). 4. minimum age : 15-34 years. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Meningoencephalitis in Behcet's syndrome]


[Authors have detected the same disease in a pair of 32 and 20-year-old brothers. Both eyes showed chronic uveitis, acute iritis, inveterate chorioretinitis nodules. One eye of the younger boy was already completely amaurotic. The latter also had meningoencephalitis, which was not favorably affected by cortisone. No virus was isolated from fresh mouth aphthae. Based on the literature and our own observations, the neurological symptoms were presumably allergic in origin.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Induced paranoid psychosis]


[In addition to a brief review of the relevant literature, the author analyses two separate cases of induced paranoid psychosis in a family (mother-in-law, husband, wife, son) and a married couple. He points out the role of environmental influences and personality structure. He draws attention to the reflection of the superstitious-mystical social transmission (witchcraft) in the content of the delusions, despite the proximity of the capital, and the importance of the irrational element in the functioning of the suggestive mechanisms. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Nerve damage in caisson workers]


[The high sensitivity of the central nervous system to decompression trauma is evident, and damage can occur not only during manifest neurological disease, but also latently, behind the onset of other forms of disease, or even without any manifest symptoms of decompression. The only effective causal therapy for decompression sickness of the central nervous system is recompression, carried out in a timely manner, with great care and, if necessary, with persistent patience. After unsuccessful recompression, the prospects for recovery are poor; permanent damage is caused and can lead to both somatic and functional psychiatric pathologies. In view of the risk of serious and permanent neurological lesions, the most careful prevention and therapy is essential. Among the preventive measures to be considered is limiting the length of time spent under hyperbaric pressure to prevent saturation of the slowly saturating lipid-containing tissues. The rate of evisceration should be strictly adhered to as prescribed. The implementation of recompression is the decisive factor in the therapy: after successful recompression, very slow decompression and, if necessary, oxygen inhalation should be used. In the compensation of occupational diseases in caisson workers, the possibility of an organic origin of functional conditions should also be considered. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of direct costs of percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy and microdiscectomy: Results from Turkey

ÜNSAL Ünlü Ülkün, ŞENTÜRK Salim

Microdiscectomy (MD) is a stan­dard technique for the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic in­terlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD) is another surgical op­tion that has become popular owing to reports of shorter hos­pitalization and earlier functional recovery. There are very few articles analyzing the total costs of these two techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare total hospital costs among microdiscectomy (MD) and uniportal percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar lumbar discectomy (PELD). Forty patients aged between 22-70 years who underwent PELD or MD with different anesthesia techniques were divided into four groups: (i) PELD-local anesthesia (PELD-Local) (n=10), (ii) PELD-general anesthesia (PELD-General) (n=10), (iii) MD-spinal anesthesia (MD-Spinal) (n=10), (iv) MD-general anesthesia (MD-General) (n=10). Health care costs were defined as the sum of direct costs. Data were then analyzed based on anesthetic modality to produce a direct cost evaluation. Direct costs were compared statistically between MD and PELD groups. The sum of total costs was $1,249.50 in the PELD-Local group, $1,741.50 in the PELD-General group, $2,015.60 in the MD-Spinal group, and $2,348.70 in the MD-General group. The sum of total costs was higher in the MD-Spinal and MD-General groups than in the PELD-Local and PELD-General groups. The costs of surgical operation, surgical equipment, anesthesia (anesthetist’s costs), hospital stay, anesthetic drugs and materials, laboratory wor­kup, nur­sing care, and postoperative me­dication diffe­red significantly among the two main groups (PELD-MD) (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that PELD is less costly than MD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[History of the development of wound care]

SZABÓNÉ Révész Erzsébet

[The onset of wound care dates back thousands of years. To make the wet wound treatment used today so effective can be a bumpy road. Knowledge of local processes required for wound care, mapping of the effectiveness of materials needed for wound care, treatment of bleeding suppression and traumatic shock caused by injury, destruction of pathogens entering the wound, ensuring optimal hygiene during wound care, treatment of the underlying disease in chronic wounds, all contributed to our ability to provide effective care today. The series of wars over the millennia have greatly aided the development of wound healing, as many developments are still known today that were already used by the army before they spread into everyday practice. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Acute transverse myelitis after inactivated COVID-19 vaccine

ERDEM Şimşek Nazan, DEMIRCI Seden, ÖZEL Tuğba , MAMADOVA Khalida, KARAALI Kamil , ÇELIK Tuğba Havva , USLU Ilgen Ferda, ÖZKAYNAK Sibel Sehür

Vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been rapidly developed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is increasing safety concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccines. We report a 78-year old woman who was presented with tetraparesis, paresthesias of bilateral upper extremities, and urinary retention of one-day duration. Three weeks before these symptoms, she was vaccinated with CoronaVAC vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences, China). Spine magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (TM) from the C1 to the T3 spinal cord segment. An extensive diagnostic workup was performed to exclude other possible causes of TM. We suggest that longitudinally extensive TM may be associated with COVID-19 vaccination in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of longitudinally extensive TM developing after CoronaVac vaccination. Clinicians should be aware of neurological symptoms after vaccination of COVID-19.