Clinical Neuroscience


SILVA S. Abrahamyan, IRINA B. Meliksetyan, VERGINE A. Chavushyan, MERY L. Aloyan, JOHN S. Sarkissian

MARCH 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(03-04)

[Based on data accumulated regarding the neuroprotective action of Proline-Rich-Peptide-1 (PRP-1, a fragment of neurophysin vasopressin associated hypothalamic glycoprotein consisting of 15 amino acid residues) on neurons survival and axons regeneration and taking into the account that LVV-Hemorphin-7 (LVV-H7, an opioid peptide, widely distributed in different cell types of various tissues of intact rats, including those of the nervous and immune systems) derived from the proteolitic processing of hemoglobin in response to adverse environmental and physiological conditions, possesses the anti-stressor properties, we used histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology to investigate the putative neuroprotective action of Central Asian Cobra Naja naja oxiana snake venom (NOX) on trauma-injured rats. ABC immunohistochemical method and histochemical method on detection of Ca2+- dependent acid phosphatase activity were used for the morpho-functional study. By recording the electrical activity of the signals from the single neurons in and below the SC injury place, NOX venom has been shown to result in the complete restoration of hypothalamic-spinal projections originated from ipsi- and contra-lateral PVN and SON to neurons of SC lumbar part. NOX prevented the scar formation, well observed two months after SC injury in the control rats, resulted in the regeneration of nerve fibers growing through the trauma region, survival of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-immunoreactive (Ir) neurons, and increase of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-Ir nerve fibers and astrocytes in the SC lesion region. NOX was suggested to exert the neuroprotective effect, involving the PRP-1 and LVV-H7 in the underlying mechanism of neuronal recovery.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience


UDO Bahner, HELMUT Geiger, PALKOVITS Miklós, LENKEI Zsolt, FRIEDRICH C. Luft, AUGUST Heidland

[To test the effect of dehydration on brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in areas important to salt appetite, water balance and cardiovascular regulation, we subjected rats to dehydration and rehydration and measured ANP concentration in 18 brain areas, as well as all relevant peripheral parameters. Water deprivation decreased body weight, blood pressure, urine volume, and plasma ANP, while it increased urine and plasma osmolality, angiotensin II, and vasopressin. ANP greatly increased in 17 and 18 brain areas (all cut cerebral cortex) by 24 h. Rehydration for 12 h corrected all changes evoked by dehydration, including elevated ANP levels in brain. We conclude that chronic dehydration results in increased ANP in brain areas important to salt appetite and water balance. These results support a role for ANP as a neuroregulatory substance that participates in salt and water balance.]

Clinical Neuroscience


KISS Alexander

[Induction of Fos, a proto-oncogene c-fos protein product, was immunohistochemically examined in the rat hypothalamic neurons 3 h after a single (1×120 min) or repeated (7×120 min) immobilization (IMO) stress. The aim of the present study was to reveal a possible parallelism in the cell activation between the medial and lateral hypothalamic neurons, especially between the stress responsive neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and hypocretin (Hcrt) synthesizing neurons, i.e. suspected stress active neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. After IMO, the animals were perfused and their brains processed with immunohistochemistry for Fos or Fos/Hcrt proteins. Acute IMO elicited extensive Fos expression in both the examined areas. Excessive Fos expression was mainly seen in the PVN, while Hcrt neurons failed to show a broad response (appr. 5%) to single IMO. Clear occurrence of Fos signal was also seen in both hypothalamic areas of IMO-habituated rats. However, in these animals, in both areas examined, the number of Fos neurons was considerably suppressed, including the PVN. These results indicate that IMO is able to evoke a concurrent activation of Fos in many medial and lateral hypothalamic neurons. However, the scanty response of Hcrt neurons to acute IMO does not allow to assort them to a distinct IMO stress-responsive neuronal phenotypes of the brain.]

Clinical Neuroscience


FODOR Mariann, MAKARA B. Gábor, PALKOVITS Miklós

[Atrial natriuretic peptide-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus constitute the major sources of ANP in the three lobes of the pituitary gland. Complete transection of the pituitary stalk eliminated 93% of ANP from the intermediate lobe, 47 and 77% from the anterior and the posterior lobes, respectively. Meantime, increased levels of immunoreactive ANP were measured in the median eminence, due to the accumulation of the peptide in the transected axons centrally to the transected stalk and in the paraventricular nucleus. It is likely that ANP neurons in the paraventricular nucleus innervate the pituitary, but those in the periventricular (median) preoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis may not contribute to the ANP innervation of the pituitary gland.]

Clinical Neuroscience


TAKÁCS József, ROBERTA Zaninetti, VÍG Julianna, VASTAGH Csaba, HÁMORI József

[We have investigated the spatio-temporal expression pattern of doublecortin (DCX) protein from postnatal day (P) 2 to postnatal day (P) 22 in the brain of developing mouse. We compared the expression of DCX in the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG). Weak expression of DCX was detected in the RMS at P5, it became gradually stronger during the second postnatal week and reached its strongest expression by P18-P22. Moderate DCX immunostaining was present in the DG at P11, its marked expression - characteristic of newly generated neurons in the adult DG - appeared only after P22. Morphological and functional maturation was different in the RMS and DG, continuous neurogenesis appeared earlier in the RMS than in the DG.]

Clinical Neuroscience


KOVÁCS Katalin Á., PÁMER Zsuzsanna, KOVÁCS Attila, FEKETE Sándor, MISETA Attila, KOVÁCS Bálint, KOVÁCS Gábor L.

[Background - Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer dementia (AD) show similarities (advanced age, formation of deposits of similar content). Recently apolipoprotein E 2 (apoE 2) has been associated with AMD, while apoE4 with AD. The question of coexistence, especially with respect to the genetic background has not been studied earlier. We investigated, therefore, the occurrence of AMD in AD patients and compared their lipid profile and apoE polymorphism. Methods - 49 AMD, 32 AD and 27 control patients were examined (risk factors, visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundoscopy). Following measurement of triglyceride, total and HDL cholesterol levels, apoE mutation analysis was performed. Results - AMD was found in 8% of the cooperating AD patients. The prevalence of the apoE 4 isoforms in the AMD, AD and the control patients was 2%, 47% and 22%, while that of apoE 2 was 17%, 6% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of apoE 3 isoform was 82%, 41% and 71%, respectively. Triglyceride, total and HDL cholesterol were in the reference range; however, AD patients were characterized by a lower total cholesterol value. Conclusions - The new finding of this publication is the rare occurrence of AMD among AD patients. The higher frequency of apoE 4 among the AD population, and the higher frequency of apoE 2 among AMD patients in the South-Western region of Hungary confirms the findings of other investigators.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Experimental models of renal fibrosis]


[The high incidence of chronic kidney diseases and, regardless of the etiology, their progression to renal fibrosis with end-stage renal failure rise the urgent need to reveal the pathomechanisms. As the disease leads to complex changes in the body, it is essential to use in vivo model systems for these investigations. Animal experiments choosing the appropriate model system helps to develop more sensitive early diagnostic markers and new therapeutic approaches. Several animal experimental model descriptions can be found in the literature, which mimic specific or more general human diseases in order to help the better understanding of the pathomechanisms. Using these model systems, we are able to analyze the detailed pathophysiology of glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerular scarring or generalized renal fibrosis. The most commonly used model systems for renal fibrosis are presented and discussed.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Coexistence of cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia in type I neurofibromatosis

YALDIZ Mahizer

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1; also known as Von Recklinghausen’s disease) is a common autosomal dominant disease that occurs in the general population at the rate of 1 in 3000. Many NF-1 patients present with spinal malformations. A 54-year-old female patient was admitted to the Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology with gradually increasing swelling and spots on the body that had been present for a long period of time. Cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and dural ectasia (DE) were also detected. She was diagnosed with NF-1. NF-1 is routinely seen in dermatology practice. Coexistence of NF-1 with vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE rarely occurs. Our case is the second reported instance in the literature of NF-1 with a spinal anomaly in the cervical region, and the first reported instance of the coexistence of NF-1 with cervical vertebral scalloping, pedicle deficiencies and DE.

Clinical Neuroscience

Mid-term oral isotretinoin therapy causes a predominantly sensory demyelinating neuropathy

ALTUN Yasar, INAN Esra

Aim - The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether mid-term treatment with oral isotretinoin may impact peripheral nerve function. Methods - In this study, we included 28 patients with no apparent neurological or neurophysiological findings. The patients received treatment with oral isotretinoin for papulopustular or nodulocystic acne. The patients with normal findings in the first examination were given 1 mg/kg/day oral isotretinoin. Neurological examinations and electroneurographic studies were performed before and 6 months after the onset of isotretinoin treatment. Results - Clinical examinations and electroneurographic evaluations prior to treatment revealed no abnormalities in any of the patients. However, 20 patients (72%) displayed one or more abnormal values in the tested parameters after treatment. Although the mean amplitudes of compound muscle action potential of the ulnar and median nerves did not vary, significant decreases were observed in the mean sensory conduction velocities of median, ulnar, sural, medial plantar, medial dorsal cutaneous, and dorsal sural nerves 6 months after the onset of treatment. Conclusion - Systemic use of isotretinoin may cause electroneurographic changes. Probable electroneurographic alterations may be detected at a much earlier period via dorsal sural nerve tracing when electrophysiological methods used in routine clinical practice cannot detect these changes.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The relationship of traumatic experiences and eating disorders – therapeutical options]


[In the etiology of eating disorders (espe­cially bulimia nervosa and binge eating) traumatic experiences (sexual, physical, emo­tional abuse, neglect) play an important role. Traumatization can have a serious impact, which is influenced by the parameters of the traumatization, risk and protective factors, and the resiliency of the traumatized patient. The consequences may lead to the development of specific psychiatric and somatic disorders, and may cause lifetime revictimization. The exploration of data related to the traumatization is essential in eating disorders as well. If traumatic expericences can be detected in the back­ground of eating disorders, the targeted therapy of eating disorders while applying its specific elements should also follow the guide­lines of the general trauma-therapy. Providing safety in therapeutical relation­ship is fundamental. The therapeutic options are extensive. Along with psychodynamically oriented therapies, the newer methods based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (e.g., dialectic behavior therapy, integrative cognitive analytic therapy) are also proposed. Hyp­no­therapy can also be useful. ]