Clinical Neuroscience


FODOR Mariann1, MAKARA B. Gábor1, PALKOVITS Miklós2

MARCH 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(03-04)

[Atrial natriuretic peptide-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus constitute the major sources of ANP in the three lobes of the pituitary gland. Complete transection of the pituitary stalk eliminated 93% of ANP from the intermediate lobe, 47 and 77% from the anterior and the posterior lobes, respectively. Meantime, increased levels of immunoreactive ANP were measured in the median eminence, due to the accumulation of the peptide in the transected axons centrally to the transected stalk and in the paraventricular nucleus. It is likely that ANP neurons in the paraventricular nucleus innervate the pituitary, but those in the periventricular (median) preoptic nucleus and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis may not contribute to the ANP innervation of the pituitary gland.]


  1. Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
  2. Neuromorphological and Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience



[Dedication 2007;60(03-04)]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Editor’s note]


[Editor’s note 2007;60(03-04) ]

Clinical Neuroscience



[Based on data accumulated regarding the neuroprotective action of Proline-Rich-Peptide-1 (PRP-1, a fragment of neurophysin vasopressin associated hypothalamic glycoprotein consisting of 15 amino acid residues) on neurons survival and axons regeneration and taking into the account that LVV-Hemorphin-7 (LVV-H7, an opioid peptide, widely distributed in different cell types of various tissues of intact rats, including those of the nervous and immune systems) derived from the proteolitic processing of hemoglobin in response to adverse environmental and physiological conditions, possesses the anti-stressor properties, we used histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology to investigate the putative neuroprotective action of Central Asian Cobra Naja naja oxiana snake venom (NOX) on trauma-injured rats. ABC immunohistochemical method and histochemical method on detection of Ca2+- dependent acid phosphatase activity were used for the morpho-functional study. By recording the electrical activity of the signals from the single neurons in and below the SC injury place, NOX venom has been shown to result in the complete restoration of hypothalamic-spinal projections originated from ipsi- and contra-lateral PVN and SON to neurons of SC lumbar part. NOX prevented the scar formation, well observed two months after SC injury in the control rats, resulted in the regeneration of nerve fibers growing through the trauma region, survival of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-immunoreactive (Ir) neurons, and increase of the PRP-1- and LVV-H7-Ir nerve fibers and astrocytes in the SC lesion region. NOX was suggested to exert the neuroprotective effect, involving the PRP-1 and LVV-H7 in the underlying mechanism of neuronal recovery.]

Clinical Neuroscience


BAHNER Udo, GEIGER Helmut, PALKOVITS Miklós, LENKEI Zsolt, LUFT C. Friedrich, HEIDLAND August

[To test the effect of dehydration on brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations in areas important to salt appetite, water balance and cardiovascular regulation, we subjected rats to dehydration and rehydration and measured ANP concentration in 18 brain areas, as well as all relevant peripheral parameters. Water deprivation decreased body weight, blood pressure, urine volume, and plasma ANP, while it increased urine and plasma osmolality, angiotensin II, and vasopressin. ANP greatly increased in 17 and 18 brain areas (all cut cerebral cortex) by 24 h. Rehydration for 12 h corrected all changes evoked by dehydration, including elevated ANP levels in brain. We conclude that chronic dehydration results in increased ANP in brain areas important to salt appetite and water balance. These results support a role for ANP as a neuroregulatory substance that participates in salt and water balance.]

Clinical Neuroscience


BALI Balázs, NAGY Zoltán, KOVÁCS J. Krisztina

[Introduction - (-)Deprenyl is an irreversible inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), which is now used for treatment of Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Evidence suggests that the neuroprotective effect of deprenyl may not be related exclusively to the inhibition of the enzyme MAO-B. Methods - To test the impact of deprenyl on ischemiainduced changes in vitro, we followed the time course of propidium iodide (PI) uptake as an indicator of neuronal cell death as well as the expression of apoptotic factors in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen- glucose deprivation (OGD) for 45 min. Results - The first signs of neuronal death were detected 2 hours after OGD and were extended to all subfields of the hippocampus by 24 hours post-injury. Presence of deprenyl (10-9 M) significantly delayed the cell death induced by the insult. Exposure of control cultures to deprenyl significantly increased the abundance of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNAs as revealed by RT-PCR. OGD resulted in an elevation of anti-apoptotic factors, while the expression of pro-apoptotic bax remained unchanged. Conclusion - These data suggest that deprenyl is neuroprotective in an in vitro model of ischemia. Although deprenyl upregulates the expression of Bcl-2 under basal conditions, its effect on anti-apoptotic factors is not significantly manifested during OGD.]

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Risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under endoscope

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Background – Up to now, the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy remain controversial. Purpose – To analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under an endoscope, and to provide evidence for preventing and controlling the occurrence and development of infections. A total of 370 patients receiving endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2017 were selected. The risk factors related to postoperative intracranial infections were analyzed. The hospitalization lengths and expenditures of patients with and without intracranial infections were compared. Of the 370 patients, 18 underwent postoperative intracranial infections, with the infection rate of 4.86%. Intraoperative blood loss >120 mL, cerebrospinal leakage, diabetes, preoperative use of hormones, macroadenoma as well as surgical time >4 h all significantly increased the infection rate (P<0.05). Preoperative use of antibacterial agents prevented intracranial infection. Compared with patients without intracranial infections, the infected ones had significantly prolonged hospitalization length and increased expenditure (P<0.05). Discussion – It is of great clinical significance to analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infection after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy, aiming to prevent and to control the onset and progression of infection. Intracranial infections after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy were affected by many risk factors, also influencing the prognosis of patients and the economic burden.

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In this study, we wanted to investigate the effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulant use on the success of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke cases. 174 patients who were brought to the Stroke Center of Gaziantep University Şahinbey Research and Practice Hospital between January 2018 and February 2019 due to acute ischemic stroke and who underwent mechanical thrombectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, antiplatelet/anticoagulant use before the stroke and mTICI (modified-Throm­bolysis-In-Cerebral-Infarction) scores used for reperfusion in mechanical thrombectomy were evaluated. The findings were analyzed statistically (p<0.05). The mean age was 63.3 ± 13.5 in 174 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy. 23/174 (13.2%) patients were using anticoagulant therapy (warfarin-OAC or new generation oral anticoagulant-NOAC) and 28/174 (16.1%) were using antiplatelet therapy. A history of atrial fibrillation (AF) was significantly higher in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy before acute ischemic stroke (p=0.001). Patients with a history of hyper tension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) before acute ischemic stroke were receiving antiplatelet therapy in higher rates (respectively; p=0.003, p=0.037, p=0.005). Successful recanalization (mTICI ≥ 2b) was higher in patients with a history of anticoagulant use and who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (p=0.025). Our study showed that the use of anti­platelet or anticoagulants before mechanical thrombec­tomy may have an indirect positive effect on the success of the procedure.

Clinical Neuroscience

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Clinical Neuroscience

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