Clinical Neuroscience

[Nervous system of engine builders working on assembly lines]

BÁLINT István1, HÓDOS Tibor1

AUGUST 01, 1963

Clinical Neuroscience - 1963;16(08)

[By means of modern technology and organization of work, the effect of stress on the nervous system caused by factors outside the objective nature of the work process can be substantially reduced in the case of production on the production line. The success of the measures aimed at reducing the strain on the nervous system of people working on the production line can only be increased if the stress situation resulting from the nature of the work process is changed. Since the repetitive and uniform manipulations during the bound work process primarily require an adaptation of the individual tempo and rhythm within narrow limits, the nervous system load on the working person is reflected in the mental performance of the adaptation at the given moment of time. The investigations concerning time perception have shown the necessity of improving the working conditions in two areas with regard to the further reduction of the nervous system load: 1. in order to further limit monotony, the linking of the tasks on the production line must be regulated in a new way, 2. in order to facilitate time adaptation, more micro-breaks must be inserted between the individual tasks on the production line than before.]


  1. Országos Munkaegészségügyi Intézet



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Cholinesterase activity of subdural haematomas]


[The authors report on cholinesterase enzyme activity assays of operated subdural and intracerebral haematoma specimens. By determining the cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity of the fluid obtained at surgery, they attempted to draw parallels between enzyme activity and the time of haematoma persistence. The results showed that the fluid content of the capsular haematoma is not stable from the time of formation. The variation in the activity of the two enzymes studied suggests the possibility that the fluid content is continuously replenished, presumably by transudation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Our experience with Parkazine and its combination with other antiparkinsonian medicines]

DOBI Sándor

[Following Klimes' positive experience with outpatients, we have also had positive experience with Parkazine in hospital, which is mostly more severe. We have experienced a pronounced antitremor effect and we have experienced what was definitely an advantage over other previous drugs, that it also has a significant antitremor effect. This anti-tremor effect, which is all the shorter the patient's anamnesis, is the main advantage of Parkazine and justifies its use in all cases of Parkinson's syndrome. In addition to its beneficial effects on tremor and rigor, it also significantly improves akinesia through rigor reduction, without affecting primary motor impulsion. The latter should be classified as psychic symptoms, which are not affected by parkazine. Nevertheless, it does have a significant secondary psychic effect, which can be attributed to an improvement in the ability of helpless tremor patients to move and a reduction in tremor, by which the emotional afficiability of patients is also reduced. To influence the autonomic phenomena, which are a sub-symptom of Parkinson's syndrome and which greatly impair social integration, the drug can be preferably combined with belladonna derivatives, in our experience most notably Bellafit. This implies, accepting the different localisation mechanisms of the main components of PD, that Parkazine targets the areas involved in the generation of PD tremor and rigorous tonicity. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Analysis of symptomatic epipharyngeal tumour cases with trigeminal neuralgia]


[After describing the cases of three patients with epipharyngeal tumours, I will summarise the symptomatology of epipharyngeal tumours, emphasising the so-called latent phase, when only the elevation of pain to organic status and the correct evaluation of the otological complaints can help to establish an early diagnosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Spontaneous intracerebral haematomas surgical treatment]


[The authors report the results of surgical treatment of 28 spontaneous intracerebral haematomas. In 12 cases, the cause of the haemorrhage was hypertonic arteriosclerosis based on clinical investigations; in 2 juvenile patients the haemorrhage was due to a microangioma undetectable by angiography, while in the other cases the aetiology was unknown. The cases were classified into 3 groups according to onset and course : 1. pseudotumoral or chronic form, 2. apoplectiform onset and 3. subarachnoid haemorrhage. The distribution of haematomas according to localisation was as follows: frontal 5, temporal 8, capsular 5, trigonal 9, cerebellar 1. Of the 28 patients, 5 died (18% surgical mortality). Of the 10 patients operated on within two weeks, 4 died, and of the 18 operated on later, 1 died. Despite the strikingly better results of late surgery, categorical avoidance of early intervention is not possible, but requires individual assessment of the surgical indicatio, especially in acute fasciitis. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Risk of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Focus on aceclofenac]


[Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently used pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a number of studies emphasized that NSAIDs were damaging not only the gastrointestinal (GI), but also the cardiovascular (CV) system, could increase the blood pressure, the frequency of coronary events (angina, myocardial infarction) and stroke incidence, as well as they might deterio­rate renal functions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) did not find evidence that administering NSAIDs could increase the risk of developing COVID-19 or worsened the condition of COVID-19 patients. However, unwanted effects of specific drugs differ substantially in their occurrence and seriousness as well. It seemed to be for a long time that the NSAIDs provoked higher GI-risk was closely related to the COX1/COX2 selectivity, like the cardiovascular (CV) risk to the COX2/COX1 selectivity, however, the recent data did not prove it clearly. Based on the available literature while pondering the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events, among all NSAIDs the aceclofenac profile seemed to be the most favourable.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]