Clinical Neuroscience

[Multiple disruption of the body representation in neglect]

SNAGY Zita1,2,3, VERSEGHI Anna3, VKOMLÓSI Anna1, RÁKÓCZI Balázs3, BOROS Erzsébet3

JANUARY 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(01-02)

[Background and purpose - Neglect related to the body has many symptoms. We suggest that the various symptoms might be associated with the injuries of different cognitive functions referring to the body, which are caused by lesions of different brain areas. Therefore we investigated the injuries of two functions in a group of patients with neglect (N=10) contrary to patients without neglect (N=10) and healthy controls (N=10). These functions are: perception of body location in external space and the perception of body shape. Methods - We applied a novel method (Body Portraying Method), which is suitable for measuring subjective perception of both body location and body shape. Results - 1. Patients with left neglect perceived their bodies with a significant right shift compared to their real body position. In contrast to this, patients without neglect and healthy controls tended to shift the subjective location of their body to the left. 2. Patients with neglect perceived the shape of their bodies significantly more distorted than both patients without neglect and healthy controls. 3. In case of eight patients with neglect, the symptom of shifted body location to the right and the symptom of body shape distortion appeared together. However, injuries of these two functions dissociated in case of two neglect patients. Conclusions - Both the perception of body location in external space and the perception of body shape might become distorted in neglect. Furthermore, the dissociation of these symptoms supports our suggestion, that they might be associated with the injuries of different functions referring to the body. This result has practical issues as well. At the end of the study we discuss the necessity of appropriate tailored physiotherapy (fitted to the injured function) in the rehabilitation of patients with neglect.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
  2. PhD School of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
  3. National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation, Budapest

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Nature Reviews Drug Discovery: editorial article of neuroscientists from Szeged about kynurenine (IF: 33.078)]

VÉCSEI László

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the implicit learning processes]

CSÁBI Eszter, NÉMETH Dezsõ

[The role of sleep in different memory processes is debated. Probably it plays an active role in the memory consolidation or possibly it prevents forgetting by protecting against interference or it makes the memory performance more efficient by facilitating the forgetting. The beneficial effect of sleep in explicit memory is well demonstrated, while the role of sleep in implicit mechanisms has not been comprehensively characterized so far. There are several factors which affect the appearance of sleep effect, such as the structure, the length and the complexity of sequence being used, the awareness of the sequence, the length of the learning blocks and the offline period. Besides the classical sleep deprivation methods with healthy participants, examining patients with sleep disorders could be a new method of the investigation of the sleep effect which enables us to enrich our knowledge not only about the sleep-dependent memory consolidation but also the cognitive dysfunction related to sleep pathologies. This new line of research can help the development of more effective rehabilitation programs.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Diagnosis of primary insomnia by actigraphy - Improved results by data selection]

RAJNA Péter, TAKÁCS Johanna

[Study objectives - In spite of the useful information provided by actigraphy in sleep medicine it is still not an independent tool either in the clinical diagnosis or in the follow-up. In the frame of a retrospective study, a simple new method of data reduction was applied with the aim of improving the clinical impact of actigraphy for the diagnosis of primary insomnia. Methods - Actigraphic records with a duration of 1 week produced on 47 subjects who met the inclusion-exclusion criteria. The daily activities during the investigational period were registered by means a self-completed questionnaire. Three parameters (sleep latency, sleep fragmentation and sleep efficiency) and only their three ’worse - as regards insomnia’ daily values were analyzed statistically. The study participants comprised 13 healthy controls, 17 healthy ‘bad sleepers’ and 17 subjects with primary insomnia. Results - The post-hoc tests did not reveal statistically significant difference in the three parameters between the healthy and ‘bad sleeper’ groups, but these two groups differed statistically from the primary insomnia group. Conclusion - The actigraphic analysis of sleep latency, sleep fragmentation and sleep efficacy allows a significant differentiation between subjects with primary insomnia and healthy controls, but not between healthy controls and healthy ‘bad sleepers’. Statistical algorithms indicated ‘models’ for clinically good and bad sleepers. Further studies on large populations are necessary before this method can be introduced in the routine medical care of individuals with primary insomnia.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Pneumococcal meningitis in a pregnant woman]

SCHAREK Petra, JEKKEL Csilla, BUDAI József, SZILASI Zsuzsanna, HELFERICH Frigyes, ÁRVA Ilona, VÁRADI András, LÉTAY Erzsébet, KATONA Katalin, RÓKUSZ László

[Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease. The incidence of meningitis is about 2.6-6 cases per 100.000 adults per year in developed countries. The most common causative microorganisms are Sreptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. A 33-year-old multigravida, at 24 week of gestation was admitted to the hospital because of ear pain, haedache, fever and confusion. Lumbal puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed signs of bacterial meningitis. Latex agglutination test was positive for S. pneumoniae, Gram-positive diplococci have seen under microscope and later cultivation verified S. pneumoniae as the causative agent. After ceftriaxon, dexamethasone administration and treatment in intensive care unit, left side mastoidectomy was performed since cranial computed tomography showed acut exacerbation of chronic mastoiditis on the left side. After extubation, mobilisation and 14 days antibiotic treatment the patient, who had residual hearing loss on the left side, was discharged from the hospital. During the treatment the foetal parameters were normal. The patient at 39 week of gestation gave birth to a healthy infant. Forty-eight case reports have been published in this topic around the world until April, 2012. The most common causative agents were S. pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes. Because of the little amount of data, it is hard to appreciate the actual incidence and prognosis of this life-threatening illness both for mother and infant. As far as we know this is the first published case report of meningitis during pregnancy in Hungary. By this article we would like to draw attention to the importance of teamwork, of prevention of brain abscess formation and of the removal of the infection’s focus.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Rare diseases - struggle on borders of life]

MECHLER Ferenc

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[Importance of hydrocephalus following severe brain injury during postacute rehabilitation]

DÉNES Zoltán, LANTOS Ágnes, SZÉL István, THOMKA Magdolna, VASS Mátyás, BARSI Péter

[Objectives - We report our experiences with hydrocephalus in early rehabilitation over a seven-year period. Method - Retrospective study in Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit of the National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation, between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2008. Results - At our institute in the last seven years, we treated 83 patients with secondary and six patients with primary hydrocephalus. The majority of hydrocephalus was of post traumatic origin (52) and remaining 23 following stroke (SAH, AVM, ICH) or brain operation (tumour - seven, and one cranioplasty), and all these patients had undergone ventricular shunt implantation. Mean age of patients was 36 (14-80) years. Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in our rehabilitation unit in 20 of 83 cases and the other patients were shunted before transfer to our unit. The median time point of shunting was 70 (range: 20-270) days after trauma, brain surgery or stroke. Post-operative complications were seen in 12 of 89 patients: six infections and six shunt failure and revision was necessary in 14%. In PTH cases, the post-operative improvement was seen in 40 of 52 patients being shunted and corresponded to FIM scores. At the other 31 cases, with non-traumatic origin, only two patients remain unchanged. Conclusions - Hydrocephalus is considered to be a frequent and important complication after severe brain damage. The incidence of hydrocephalus treated with shunt implantation in our neuro-rehabilitation unit was 4.4%. The postoperative improvement was 77%. Posttraumatic hydrocephalus concerns 5.2% of patients with severe TBI during last seven years in our institution. Diagnosis of posttraumatic hydrocephalus was established in 24%, and complication after shunt implantation (14%) was also recognized in the post-acute rehabilitation unit. It is strongly recommended for the team working at such type of units to obtain clinical practice. Teamwork, good cooperation between acute and postacutecare is necessary for successful rehabilitation of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[TREATMENT OF SPASTIC UPPER LIMB WITH BOTULINUS TOXIN]

DÉNES Zoltán, FEHÉR Miklós, VÁRKONYI Andrea

[Objective - Examination of the effect of local botulinus toxin treatment on spastic upper limb, on patients with different brain injury. Patients and method - Prospective study in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit of the National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation in the year 2003 and 2004. Thirteen patients (eight with stroke and five with traumatic brain injury) were treated locally on the spastic upper limb with 100 units botulinus A toxin. Results - Spasticity decreased one or two level on Modified Ashworth Scale, and in nine cases the good result were observed still at the end of 3rd month. No local or other complication was detected. Conclusions - Local treatment with botulinus toxin is an effective and safe method to decrease spasticity on upper limb in patients with different brain injury.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Results of intrathecal baclofen therapy on spasticity in patients with brain injury]

DÉNES Zoltán, KLAUBER András, BOTH Béla, ERÕSS Loránd

[Objectives - To evaluate the results of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy on the spasticity in patients with brain injury. Method - Retrospective study in Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit between January 2001 and December 2010. Results - During the last ten years, in our unit 13 patients were involved into ITB therapy on severe spasticity, after brain injury, while more than 100 Baclofen pumps were implantated in Hungary with Hungary with coordination of the Multidisciplinary Team. ITB therapy was indicated in severe spasticity developed after seven cases of traumatic brain injuries, five cases of strokes and one case of anoxic brain injury. The mean age of patients was 26 years (18- 52). At the time of pump implantation three patients were in vegetative state. The shortest period elapsed between the brain injury and pump implantation was three months and the longest period was nine years, mean 15 months. Baclofen pump had to be changed in six cases after six years, and was removed in three cases due to decreasing spasticity. Catheter revision was performed in two cases due to flow problem. We had no complication in association with ITB therapy. Conclusions - Intrathecal baclofen therapy seems to be an effective and safe treatment in patients with severe spasticity of cerebral origin. We suggest team (neurosurgeon and rehabilitation professionals) decision in a spasticity center before involving the patient into ITB therapy, and follow up in the rehabilitation unit. The severity of spasticity as a consequence of brain injury can change during years and it is necessery to follow it with dosage and dynamics of baclofen therapy. Baclofen pump removal is suggested if the ITB therapy is further not reasonable.]