Clinical Neuroscience

[Modeling of human movements, neuroprostheses]


JULY 20, 2011

Clinical Neuroscience - 2011;64(07-08)

[Modeling of human movements became very important as modern methods in informatics and engeniering are available to discern human movement characteristics that were hidden before. The construction of models of neural control and mechanical execution of human movements helps the diagnosis of movement disorders and predicts the outcome of clinical intervention and medical rehabilitation. Here I present methods for recording kinematic and muscle activity patterns. Measurements can be compared with predicted movement patterns based on mathematical models. There are an infinity of different muscle activity patterns or joint rotation patterns to perform a given motor task. I present the main approaches that are used to find such solutions from the infinity of choices that might be employed by the central nervous system. I present a practical application of movement modeling: In rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients we develop and apply artificially controlled neuroprostheses to generate active cycling lower limb movements in the patients of the National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Extension of polynomial analysis of interstitial I-125 brachytherapy for 48 months]


[Objective - Previously we described from 20 patients’ data with our new “polynomial prediction approach” the volumetrical changes following gliomas I-125 brachytherapy. The aim of this study is to extend the polynomials for 48 months, and to carry out multivarial analysis of several different aspects. Methods - 20 inoperable low-grade gliomas were followed for a 48-month period after I-125 interstitial irradiation. The delivered dose on the tumor surface was 50-60 Gy. Dose planning and image fusion were done with the BrainLab Target 1.19 software, mathematical and statistical computations were carried out with the Matlab numeric computation and visualization software. Volumes of tumor necrosis, reactive zone and edema referred to as “triple ring” were measured on image fused control MRI and planning CT images. The measured volumes were normalized with respect to the reference volumes. Mean values of volumes were determined, then polynomials were fitted to the mean using the polynomial curve fitting method. The accuracy of our results was verified by correlating the predicted data with the measured ones. Results - We have found that the edema reaches its maximum two times after irradiation during the 48 months follow up period. We have shown that small tumors react more rapidly and creating greater volumes of the “triple ring” than bigger ones. Conclusions - The polynomial prediction approach proposed here reveals the dynamics of triple ring for 48 months. The derived polynomials and the multivarial analysis carried out afterwords help to (i) design the best treatment, (ii) follow up the patient's condition and (iii) plan reirradiation if necessary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Congress calendar]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Combined evoked potentials in co-occuring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy]

MAJOR Zoltán Zsigmond

[Background and purpose - Evoked potentials, both stimulus related and event related, show disturbances in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and epilepsies, too. This study was designed to evaluate if these potentials are characteristically influenced by the presence of the two diseases, individually, and in the case of co-occurrence. Methods - Fourty children were included, and four groups were formed, control group, ADHD group, epilepsy group and a group with the comorbidity of epilepsy and ADHD. Epilepsy patients were under proper antiepileptic treatment; ADHD patients were free of specific therapy. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials, visual evoked potentials and auditory P300 evaluation were performed. Results - The latency of the P100 and N135 visual evoked potential components was significantly extended by the presence of epilepsy. If ADHD was concomitantly present, this effect was attenuated. Brainstem auditory evoked potential components were prolonged in the presence of the comorbidity, considering the waves elicited in the brainstem. P300 latencies were prolonged by the presence of co-occurring ADHD and epilepsy. Feedback parameters showed overall reduction of the tested cognitive performances in the ADHD group. Conclusion - Disturbances produced by the presence of ADHD-epilepsy comorbidity reveal hypothetically a linked physiopathological path for both diseases, and offers an approach with possible diagnostic importance, combined evoked potential recordings.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Pseudo abducens palsy]

RÓZSA Anikó, KOVÁCS Krisztina, SZILVÁSSY Ildikó, BOÓR Krisztina, GÁCS Gyula

[In this study, we present two cases of different eye movement disorders with variable case histories but with the same end stage; abduction paresis of one of the eyes, which ceased when the other eye was covered. Our differential diagnosis is that either the ocular form of myasthenia gravis, convergence spasm or ocular myotonia could explain the symptoms. However, we hypothesize that the clinical picture corresponds to pseudo abducens palsy or focal dystonia of the extraocular muscle, which in turn could be the result of impaired inhibition of the tonic resting activity of the antagonistic medial rectus muscle. We offer an explanation for the patomechanism of pseudoabducens palsy and the variants of internuclear ophthalmoplegia.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Unilateral ptosis associated with paramedian thalamic infarction]


[The paramedian artery arises from P1 segment of posterior cerebral artery and supplies a variable extent of thalamus but usually the dorsomedian, median, internal medullary lamina and the intralaminar nuclei. The typical clinical picture of unilateral paramedian thalamic infarctions consist of arousal and memory disorders, language or visuospatial disorders depending on the side of the lesion accompanied with gaze palsies and sensory-motor deficits. Ipsilateral ptosis associated with paramedian thalamic infarctions has been rarely reported. We report a 31 years old patient presenting with unilateral ptosis and right sided facial numbness associated with right paramedian thalamic infarction.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[New opportunities in neuro-rehabilitation: Robot mediated therapy in conditons post central nervous system impairments]

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[Decreasing the often-seen multiple disabilities as a consequence of central nervous system impairments requires broadening of the tools of rehabilitation. A promising opportunity for this purpose is the application of physiotherapy robots. The development of such devices goes back a quarter of century. Nowadays several robots are commercially available both for supporting upper and lower limb therapy. The aim is never to replace the therapists, but rather to support and supplement their work. It is worthwhile applying these devices for goal-oriented exercises in high repetition, which one physically fatiguing for the therapist or for the correction of functional movement by various strategies. Robot mediated therapy is also useful for motivation of the patient and making the rehabilitation programme more versatile. Robots can be used for assessment of the neuromotor status as well. Several clinical studies have been executed in this field, all over the world. Meta-analyses based on randomized, controlled trials show that supplementing the traditional physiotherapy with a robot-mediated component presents advantage for the patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify which modality and intensity of the exercises, in which group of patients, in which stage lead to the expected outcome.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of health-centered approach in the management of hypertensive patients]


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Lege Artis Medicinae



[Changes that have occurred in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome have also had an impact on rehabilitation. Unfortunately, current international and national professional guidelines barely take this into account. At present, most patients after acute coronary intervention are certainly not directed to take part in rehabilitation programmes. Thus those very patients miss these programmes who would gain the most benefit from a multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitation. It would be necessary to develop standard guidelines for the selection of patients. The outcome of the interventions is highly affected by the patients' personality and psychosocial status. It has become obvious that in addition to physical exercise, which is useful but not a cure-all, psychosocial intervention is a key component of successful rehabilitation. This, however, is possible only by increasing the number of rehabilitation professionals and also by the fundamental improvement of financing.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Results of intrathecal baclofen therapy on spasticity in patients with brain injury]

DÉNES Zoltán, KLAUBER András, BOTH Béla, ERÕSS Loránd

[Objectives - To evaluate the results of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy on the spasticity in patients with brain injury. Method - Retrospective study in Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit between January 2001 and December 2010. Results - During the last ten years, in our unit 13 patients were involved into ITB therapy on severe spasticity, after brain injury, while more than 100 Baclofen pumps were implantated in Hungary with Hungary with coordination of the Multidisciplinary Team. ITB therapy was indicated in severe spasticity developed after seven cases of traumatic brain injuries, five cases of strokes and one case of anoxic brain injury. The mean age of patients was 26 years (18- 52). At the time of pump implantation three patients were in vegetative state. The shortest period elapsed between the brain injury and pump implantation was three months and the longest period was nine years, mean 15 months. Baclofen pump had to be changed in six cases after six years, and was removed in three cases due to decreasing spasticity. Catheter revision was performed in two cases due to flow problem. We had no complication in association with ITB therapy. Conclusions - Intrathecal baclofen therapy seems to be an effective and safe treatment in patients with severe spasticity of cerebral origin. We suggest team (neurosurgeon and rehabilitation professionals) decision in a spasticity center before involving the patient into ITB therapy, and follow up in the rehabilitation unit. The severity of spasticity as a consequence of brain injury can change during years and it is necessery to follow it with dosage and dynamics of baclofen therapy. Baclofen pump removal is suggested if the ITB therapy is further not reasonable.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Factors influencing Lifestyle Changes following Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]

HALÁSZ Henrietta, MEIXNER Istvánné

[The aim of the study: In addition, it seeks those methods which might help in keeping the patients motivated so that they participate in regular health education programs, and in calling their attention to the importance of their own responsibility for their health. Material and Methods: Out of the patients who took part in early rehabilitation after a heart attack, a simple random sample of 127 patients was involved (n=127). The survey was conducted by questionnaire and retrospective data analysis. For the analysis, khi2 test, correlation analysis was performed, where p was considered significant if <0.05. Results: 71% of the patients were over the age of 60, 87% were overweight or obese, 39% were smokers at the beginning of the rehabilitation, 85% suffered from hypertension and 39% had diabetes mellitus. As opposed to male patients, females tend to recognise the impact of lifestyle on health (p=0.004). Patients under the age of 60 were more knowledgeable with regards to medicine than patients above the age of 60 (p=0.000). Positive family anamnesis impacts views on lifestyle changes (p=0.01). Conclusion: In order to increase the effectiveness of health education, different methods are needed when teaching patients above the age of 60. Written materials need to supplement verbal information sharing. Patients with positive family anamnesis have already gained some knowledge, which needs to be corrected or extended as required. Nutrition consulting should be made more practical for better feasibility.]