Clinical Neuroscience

Frequency and types of headaches in patients with metabolic syndrome

DEMIRYÜREK Enes Bekir1, EMRE Ufuk2, KORUCU Osman3, BARUT Özen Banu2, TASCILAR Nida Fatma2, ATASOY Tugrul Hüseyin2, DEMIRYÜREK Esra4, YAYLACI Selcuk5, GENC Bilal Ahmet6

SEPTEMBER 30, 2016

Clinical Neuroscience - 2016;69(09-10)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.69.0319

Background - Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and headaches are common public health problems in whole world. The relationship between headaches and the MetS isn’t understood clearly. Purpose - The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and types of headaches, and evaluate the relationship between headache characteristics and clinical and laboratory parameters analyzed in patients diagnosed with MetS. Materials and methods - Of the patients diagnosed with MetS in Endocrinology outpatient clinics between July 2011 and July 2012, 202 patients were included in the study. Hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol, thyroid function tests and HbA1c values of all patients were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were applied to all patients. The headache severity was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results - The prevalence of headache in patients with MetS was found to be 61.4%. The incidence of headache was higher in female patients (F: 86.4%, M: 13.6%). The distribution of the subtypes of headaches was as follows: Episodic Tension-Type Headaches (ETTH) 24.8%, Episodic Migraine 14.4%, Chronic Tension-Type Headaches (CTTH) 11.3%, Episodic Tension-Type Headaches (ETTH) and Episodic Migraine 7.9%, and other types of headaches (Cervicogenic Headache and Cluster Headache) 3%. No statistically significant relationship was found between headache and non-headache groups in terms of body mass index, waist circumference, and the laboratory parameters (p>0.05). The mean BDI and BAI scores were higher in the headache group (p<0.001 and p<0.001). No significant difference was found between the mean MIDAS scores in the subtypes of headaches (p=0.35). In the headache group, there was a significant relationship only between triglyceride levels and attack frequency, duration and severity. Conclusion - Prevalence of headache in patients with MetS was 61.4%. The incidence of subtypes of headaches was similar to those in the general population. A relationship was found between triglyceride levels and attack frequency and severity. The result may be important to draw attention to the evaluation of triglyceride levels for reducing the frequency and severity of attacks in patients with headaches.

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Sakarya Education and Research Hospital Neurology Department Sakarya, Turkey
  2. Kecioren Education and Research Hospital Neurology Department Ankara, Turkey
  3. Bülent Ecevit Univercity Faculty of Medicine Neurology Department Zonguldak, Turkey
  4. Sakarya Education and Research Hospital Psychiatry Department Sakarya, Turkey
  5. Rize Findikli State Hospital Internal Medicine Department Rize, Turkey
  6. Sakarya Education and Research Hospital Internal Medicine Department Sakarya, Turkey

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in pain research]

ÉDES Andrea Edit, JUHÁSZ Gabriella

[Functional imaging studies opened a new way to understand the neural activity underlying pain perception and the pathomechanism of chronic pain syndromes. In the last twenty years several results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been published about examining the different aspects of complex pain experience. The aim of these studies is to understand the functioning of the pain control system, the so-called pain matrix, activated by acute nociceptive stimulus. Another important field of pain research is the investigation of neuronal processes underlying chronic pain, since the pathomechanism of this is still unclear. Our review aims to provide insight into the methods of pain research using fMRI and the achievements of the last few years.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Eating disorders and pregnancy - a review of literature]

DUKAY-SZABÓ Szilvia, VARGA Márta, TÚRY Ferenc

[Eating disorders are psychosomatic disorders affecting primarily women, and influence reproductive functions as well. They have an impact on ovarial cyclem fertility, course of pregnancy, process of delivery, post partum period. Moreover, some data show that they can influence the adult health status. Extensive research from the last three decades call the attention to the fact that besides the classical eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) the newer types (e.g., orthorexia nervosa), and subclinical disorders also occur in a subgroup of pregnant women. For this reason it is of key importance that the personnel working in the territory of obstetrics and gynecology have a solid knowledge about the symptoms, screening and therapeutical opportunities, and outcome of these disorders. The review summarizes the recent research data about the relationship of eating disorders and pregnancy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Adult attachment and parental bonding in irritable bowel syndrome and in panic disorder - Implications for psychotherapy

PÉNZES István, CZEGLÉDI Edit, SZALAI Dömötör Tamás, CSALA Irén, TÚRY Ferenc

Background and purpose - Attachment theory provides an integrative perspective about the interplay between cognitive, affective, behavioral and interpersonal processes and is relevant for understanding irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and panic disorder (PD). The aim of the present study was to examine the adult attachment style and parental bonding of IBS and PD patients. Methods - In a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, 65 PD and 65 IBS patients with clinical diagnosis participated. Measures were Attachment Style Questionnaire, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale - Revised, and Parental Bonding Instrument. Results - The frequencies of insecure attachment (80.0% vs. 63.1%) and paternal neglect (35.4% vs. 16.9%) were higher in IBS than in PD (χ2 (1)=4.571, p=0.033, and χ2 (3)=7.831, p=0.050, respectively). The frequency of secure attachment was significantly higher for optimal paternal bonding than with suboptimal paternal bonding (75.0% vs. 21.9%, χ2 (1)=19.408, p<0.001). According to the results of multiple binary logistic analysis, optimal paternal bonding predicted secure attachment after adjusting for the background variables (OR=9.26, p=0.001). Conclusion - A high frequency of insecure attachment was present in both groups, especially in IBS. With regard to maternal bonding, IBS and PD groups showed similar patterns, while an apparent difference was observed for paternal bonding. These highlighted the developmental similarities of these two, symptomatically different disorders. While optimal maternal bonding did not predict adult attachment security, paternal bonding did thus replete with therapeutic implications. Attachment functions, like responsiveness, attunement and affection modulation were apparent in the psychotherapist-patient relationship as well.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dissections of the supraaortic arteries]

CSEH Tamás, SZUKITS Sándor, SZAPÁRY László

[Dissection of the cervical and intracranial vasculature is a rare but important cause of ischaemic stroke especially in young adults. In the majority of cases it affects the extracranial vessels, mostly the internal carotid artery. It might be categorized as spontaneous or traumatic, causing diverse clinical symptoms. Dissection might lead to ipsilateral stroke mainly by artery-to-artery embolisation. Due to its relative rarity compared to the classic ischaemic stroke of the elderly, there are much less clinically relevant information for the clinician to rely on. Several large, randomised, multicentered, prospective studies and some smaller, retrospective analyses have been published recently concerning the genetic background, epidemiology, acute care and secondary prevention of supraaortic arterial dissection which helps the neurologist to provide evidence-based care for his patient. Our aim is to give a short, up-to-date overview of arterial dissections with two case reports.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Stress-induced corticosterone rise maintain gastric mucosal integrity in rats

LUDMILA Filaretova, MARINA Myazina, TATIANA Bagaeva

Background - To investigate contribution of glucocorticoids to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity during stress we predominantly used ulcerogenic stress models. Using these models we demonstrated that glucocorticoids released in response to the ulcerogenic stimuli attenuated their harmful action on the gastric mucosa. Purpose - In the present study we hypothesized that mild stressors does not damage the gastric mucosa due to gastroprotective action of glucocorticoids released in response to these stressors. Methods - To verify the hypothesis the effects of normally non-ulcerogenic mild stimuli (15-30 min cold-restraint) on the gastric mucosal integrity have been studied under the circumstances of inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical axis in rats. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was inhibited by: 1) fast inhibitory action of metyrapone, inhibitor glucocorticoid synthesis; 2) fast inhibitory action of NBI 27914, the selective antagonist of cortricotropin- releasing factor receptor type 1; 3) delayed inhibitory action of a single pharmacological dose of cortisol injected one week before the onset of stress stimulus. Results - Each of these pretreatments significantly decreased 15-30 min cold-restraint-produced corticosterone levels: 37.2±1 vs 22.5±1.2 (p<0.05) after metyrapone; 52.1±0.9 vs 41.4±1 (p<0.05) after NBI, and 64.2±4.2 vs 16.7±1.5 (p<0.05) after cortisol pretreatment. The inhibition of stress-induced corticosterone rise resulted in an ap - pearance of gastric lesions after the onset of these mild stressors in rats. Conclusions - The results suggest that in rats with inhibited stress-induced corticosterone rise normally non-ulcerogenic stimuli are transformed into ulcerogenic ones and confirm the hypothesis. The findings further support for the point of view that glucocorticoids released during acute stress are gastroprotective factors.

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Acute effect of sphenopalatine ganglion block with lidocaine in a patient with SUNCT

KOCATÜRK Mehtap, KOCATÜRK Özcan

Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing/short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with cranial autonomic features (SUNCT/SUNA) is a rare severe headache. At the time of an attack, it can hinder a patient from eating and requires acute intervention. The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion with both sensory and autonomic fibers. Sphenopalatine ganglion block has long been used in the treatment of headache, particularly when conventional methods have failed. Here, we present a patient who was resistant to intravenous lidocaine, but responded rapidly to sphenopalatine ganglion block during an acute episode of SUNCT/SUNA.

Clinical Neuroscience

To handle the HaNDL syndrome through a case: The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis

ÇOBAN Eda, TEKER Ruken Serap, SERİNDAĞ Helin, SAKALLI Nazan, SOYSAL Aysun

The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a rare entity. This disease has been related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by fluctuating neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. We describe a case of a 47 years old man with acute onset of headache and aphasia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (25 cells/μl, 100% lymphocytes). Electroencephalogram showed moderate slow rhythm in the left hemisphere, with temporoparietal predominance, and without epileptiform activity. His blood tests as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were normal. With the diagnosis of HaNDL syndrome the patient was accepted in the Department of Neurology and discharged with full recovery.

Clinical Neuroscience

Medication overuse headache: The effectivity of iv lidocaine – magnesium

TEPE Nermin, TERTEMIZ Faysal Oktay

The detoxification process in medication overuse headache is the most difficult process for the patient. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the combination of low dose IV lidocaine and magnesium (100 mg lidocaine and 1.25 mg magnesium) in patients with medication overuse headache during the detoxification process. A total of 30 patients were included in the study; 15 received 24 hours of IV hydration, 15 received 1-hour lidocaine-magnesium infusion at the onset of pain in addition to the 24 hours of IV hydration. Headache severity (numeric rating scale, NRS), attack durations, onset of headache, monthly analgesic/triptan intakes, numbers of monthly headache days data were documented. We evaluated the severity of headache before and after daily treatment of two groups for one week. When both groups were compared, there was no significant difference in the pre-treatment NRS values, whe­reas, in the group receiving IV lidocaine-magnesium combination, there was a statistically significant decrease in the post-treatment NRS values in the first five days (p <0.05). An 1-hour combined infusion of lidocaine-magnesium may be considered as an alternative option for the patient to have a more quality detoxification process during the hospital stay, so that in parallel to the reduction in the use of multiple treatments (such as neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, antiemetics and opioids) and duration length of stay, the economic costs can also be reduced. The administration of combination will bring fewer side effects compared to their administration separately.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Personalised epilepsy treatment]

ALTMANN Anna

[Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disease in childhood. Patients with epilepsy – even with so-called benign epilepsy – need medication for years. During this time, children go through a very big change, not only gaining weight and height, but also changing hormonal and metabolic processes. Maturation processes in different brain areas also take place at different rates depending on age. All of these should be considered when preparing a therapeutic plan. In everyday practice after the diagnosis of epilepsy, the applied drug is most often selected based on the shape and type of seizure. However, a number of other factors need to be considered when designing a therapeutic strategy: 1. efficacy (form of epilepsy, type of seizure), 2. age, gender, 3. pharmacological properties of the drug, 4. adverse drug reaction profile, 5. lifestyle (community), figure (skinny, corpulent, obese), 6. other comorbidities (nutrition, behavioral and learning problems, circulatory disorders, kidney or liver disease), 7. expected interactions with other drugs already used, 8. genetics, 9. other aspects (drug registration and prescription rules). The purpose of this article is to help to decide which antiepileptic drugs are expected to have the least side effects in a particular child with different comorbidities and which medications should be avoided if possible.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine

DEMIR Fıgen Ulku, BOZKURT Oya

Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.