Clinical Neuroscience

[Forensic aspects of psychogenic disorders]

VARGHA Miklós1

OCTOBER 01, 1969

Clinical Neuroscience - 1969;22(10)

[Nyírő's 1959 summary of psychogenic reactions discusses psychogenic reactions primarily in terms of disorders of consciousness, but raised many other issues worthy of discussion. In discussing disorders of consciousness, I would stick to Nyírő's definition and division of disorders of consciousness as energetic changes and distinguish between integrative and lucid disorders. The integration of consciousness can be tight or loose, in pathological states tight or disintegrated. "With regard to lucid disturbances of consciousness, we distinguish between two groups: the state of consciousness representing the various phases of the sleep-wake transition and the dullness, fogginess, delirium, resulting from pathological causes." ]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Orvostudományi Egyetem Ideg-elmeklinikája, Szeged

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Choosing how to explore in lumbar hernia operations, based on 373 cases over four years - 1965-1968]

ANDRÁSOFSZKY T., MÁTHÉ Á., NAGY P., ROTH Gy., KOMJÁTSZEGI S., SZABÓ Á., KISGYÖRGY Á.

[It is the authors' understanding that the most important criteria for the successful surgical treatment of lumbar hernias are the correct indication and timing of surgery, avoidance of myelography, minimal bone resection, but always complete root decompression. These criteria were applied in 373 operations between 1965 and 1968, with inter-arch exploration in 87.64% of cases. The situations which make each type of exploration possible or necessary are analysed. It is stressed that inter-arch exploration can be used to remove hernias causing cauda-unusual hernias and that this method of exploration can also be used in reoperations. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[About granulomas in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord]

BALÓ József

[In the study of spinal ganglion cysts, we have monitored granulomas that occur in the posterior gyri of the spinal cord. Although these granulomas also contain a chronic inflammatory component, they are also populated by endothelial, or more recently meningothelial, cells of the arachnoid. According to Verga and Rexed and Wennström, these granulomas are important as causative factors in the formation of cysts in spinal ganglia. Veith has observed granulomas in the root nerves in connection with chronic infectious diseases of other organs (chronic polyarthritis, chronic cholecystitis, and malignant tumours), which he considers to be of non-specific origin. He raised the question of whether Richter's tabes granulomas are specific or non-specific. In cases of pemphigus, granulomas similar to those described by Veith in various chronic infectious diseases occur in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord. The question of whether Richter's specific syphilitic granulomas are identical to Veith's non-specific granulomas due to chronic infectious diseases needs further investigation. A similar finding was reported on the subject raised, that of a disease which started with chronic inflammation (tuboovarial abscess) and was associated with granulomas in the root nerves, the clinical course leading to death in the form of multiple neurotic gangrene of the skin.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Mélanoblastose et neurofibromatose

LUDO Van Bogaert

Les observations cliniques et génétiques rapportées indiquent que la blastomatose méningée et cutano-méningée, lorsqu'elle se présente comme une blastomatose isolable et sévère, entretient un lien, en apparence et surtout en familiarité, avec les dysplasies génétiques du système nerveux central. La conception mésoectodermique de l'ontogenèse de la mélanine explique non seulement l'apparition des neurinomes, des gliomes et des méningiomes, mais aussi la possibilité d'observer des processus mélaniques dans des phacomatoses telles que la neurofibromatose, la sclérose tubéreuse et l'angiomatose.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Encephalodystrophy progressiva paranatalis]

CSERMELY Hubert

[The author analyses the histopathological picture of the subacute and chronic stages of paranatal asphyxia based on 3 observations. In the chronic stage, he suggests the name "status microcysticus" for the spongy loosening of the cortex and cortical bone, which should be distinguished from the van Bogaert and Leigh type "status spongiosus". The status microcysticus is the result of a functional or organic vascular lesion. Finally, he discusses Alpers' disease and considers that the majority of the findings to date do not correspond to Alpers' disease.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Oro-lingual dyskinesia: a neurological enigma

MACDONALD Critchley

Author draws attention to a specialised dystonic syndrome involving mainly the muscles of the mouth, lips and tongue. Spasms can become so extensive that they can prevent the patient from writing, walking and standing. In particular, the muscles of the face and tongue may be affected. The pathogenesis and pathogenesis are not uniform. In the past, most cases of the disease were late complications of encephalitis. Nowadays this pathology is unlikely. Some cases strongly suggest a psychogenic origin, others are more likely to be of degenerative or ischaemic origin. This is particularly the case in elderly patients. Finally, in a proportion of cases, an organic syndrome due to unusual sensitivity to prolonged use of phenothiazides or other medications is likely.

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Operational Efficiency Investigation from APN Perioperative Perspective]

MADARÁSZ Ildikó, VÁRADYNÉ HORVÁTH Ágnes, PUSZTAI Dorina, ROZMANN Nóra, BERTA Gábor, HARANGOZÓ Csilla, KOZMANN Krisztina

[In the healthcare system operating theatres have to put great emphasis on quality work, patient safety and efficiency as well, and to achieve this, optimal utilization of theatres is extremely important. The results of researches in this topic in Hungarian and international literature draw attention to a lot of aspects. The study of perioperative periods, and the evaluation of the analysed processes show that theatres could be operated more effectively. As a result of this, more operations could be carried out and waiting time would also reduce. In order to increase the efficiency of the processes, APNs can play a prominent role at several points. According to the experience, the number of people using health care and the number of people waiting for surgery is increasing, which is further increased by the development of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) epidemic. Thereby, patients are not satisfied with the service. The work of APNs would also help increasing the contentment of patients during the operation procedures. Taking advantage of the multifunctional role of the nurse due to her knowledge and training, she actively participates in the operation, in the smooth running of the scheduled daily surgical program and contributes to the reduction of the number of missed, planned surgeries.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The Effect of Asthma Bronchiale on Everyday life Activities Among Adolescents]

RÁCZ Viktória Kinga, HEGEDŰS Bianka Ágnes , SZEBENI-KOVÁCS Gyula , FERENCZY Mónika

[The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the physical activity of asthmatics, sleep disorders, the extent of asthma treatment, and to assess the quality of life in terms of physical activity. We conducted our quantitative, cross-sectional survey between 2020-2021. In a non-randomized, comfort sampling the target group was defined as adolescents aged between 14–18 years, their diagnosis of asthma bronchiale had to be for at least 1 year ago. The data were collected by a self-prepared questionnaire, the domains included: socio-demographic questions related to physical activites, symptoms, sleep disorders, severity of asthma. We used miniAQLQ to assess quality of life. The statistical analysis were performed by using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS v 24 programs. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum), two-sample t-test, Chi-square test were performed. The mean age of the respondents was 16±1.51, 38% were boys and 62% were girls (N=105). There was no significant difference between physical activity and the frequency of seizures and sleep disorders (p>0.05). There is a significant difference between the genders and the symptoms increasing with intense exercise (p=0.02). We found significant correlation between the active participations in physical education classes and the severity of the disease (p=0.021). There is a significant correlation between moderate-, social activities and physical activity (p<0.05). Appropriate health education, recommendation in career choices as well as in physical activities done by nurses may lead to decrease in the number of suffocation attacks in cases of adolescents suffering from asthma bronchiale.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Non-pharmacological prevention and treatment for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture - a systematic review]

VIDA Nóra, PAPP László

[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]