Clinical Neuroscience

[Experimental induction of neuropathological processes]

SÓS József1

JANUARY 01, 1968

Clinical Neuroscience - 1968;21(01)

[There are countless experimental ways to create lesions in the nervous system. A wide range of pathological processes can be produced by vitamin deficiencies, amino acid turnover disorders, toxic substance ingestion or vascular damage. It is often possible to detect lesions at an early stage by more sophisticated analysis of the EEG (Fourier analysis, frequency and amplitude machine analysis, desynchronisation, etc.). This is of great importance in the detection of harm caused by pesticides. Not only neuronal degenerations but also myelopathies spinalis can be elicited by a variety of methods. This is in favour of the fact that it is not a specific lesion but a morphological response to chronic damage in general. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

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[Based on our experience with zoster cases, we have examined the spinal ganglia of 82 cases of pemphigus over the last 20 years to see if there are any phenomena that could explain the skin lesions. The lesions found, partly macroscopic but mainly histopathological, suggest that such a link between lesions in the spinal ganglia and skin disease exists. In addition to the acute signs of inflammation, there are also lesions that can be classified as chronic, such as those involving nerve fibres, nuclei, supporting tissue of the ganglia and lesions of the meninges. Diseases of the spinal ganglia are projected onto the skin, which makes pemphigus a cutaneous trophoneurosis. In addition to the morphological phenomena, the question is what aetiological factors are involved in its creation. This remains to be determined in the future. ]

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Observations upon the So-colled Idiots Savants

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In drawing the foregoing generalisations it is necessary to realise their limitations. We must agree with the conclusions arrived at by Mitchell, who recognised at least three psychological categories: (1) the “calculating prodigies — who may be persons of inferior intellectual calibre and who rely upon ingenious shortcuts; (2) arithmetical prodigies like Colburn, and Dase, with a moderately well developed knowledge of arithmetic; and (3) mathematical geniuses, such as the elder Bidder. These are endowed with exceptional abilities, and their knowledge of pure mathematics is profound.

Clinical Neuroscience

Thorium granulomas in the brain

FREEMAN Walter

Thorotrast was used in 1936 and 1937 to demonstrate the lesions of prefrontal lobotomy. Four patients came to autopsy after 10-22 years, and in each, one or more thorium granulomas were found. These masses ranged from 6 X 8 mm to 8X12 mm in size, were composed of hyaline material enclosed by a thick capsule of mixed connective and glia tissue, and surrounded in part by large phagocytes filled with thorium dioxide particles. Dense connective tissue developed in sulci where thorotrast escaped into the subarachnoid spaces, and marked gliosis with desquamation of the ependyma occurred when it entered the ventricles. The phagocytes in the cases with longer survival often showed vacant cavities where the nuclei should have been. Neurons in the vicinity showed no obvious lesions. The material was described as containing "a very strong thorium source.” It is believed that the alpha particles given off by the thorium are responsible for the formation of the granulomas and, after many years, for the death of the phagocytes. Thorium can safely be used in the brain only for the demonstration of cysts and abscesses which can then be completely removed. A case of such employment was described by Lehoczky in 1939.

Clinical Neuroscience

Télangiectasies de la moelle dorsale révélées à l'âge de 75 ans par une myelopathie transverse, avec une digression sur l'atrophie spinale segmentaire

GARCIN Raymond, LAPRESLE Jean

L'observation que nous rapportons tire son intêret de la révélation extrêmement tardive (75 ans) d'un angiome de la moelle de type capillaire, resté jusque là cliniquement muet. Elle illustre la longue latence possible des mal formations vasculaires de la moelle, et elle montre qu'il faut toujours penser à cette étiologie devant une affection médullaire dont la cause nous échappe.

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