Eating behaviors among the participants of an inpatient weight loss treatment
JANUARY 20, 2017
Clinical Neuroscience - 2017;70(01-02)
JANUARY 20, 2017
Clinical Neuroscience - 2017;70(01-02)
Background and purpose - Eating behaviors play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of excess weight. The aim of the study was to explore the predictors and changes in eating behaviors among overweight and obese patients. Methods - The sample of the 6-month prospective survey consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment program in the Lipidological Department of the Szent Imre Hospital (baseline: N=339, 19% men; follow-up: N=175, 16% men). The mean age was 50.2 years (SD=13.47), the mean BMI was 38.6 (SD=7.58) at baseline. Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-Items, CES-D Depression Scale. Results - According to the results of Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes analysis, older age predicted greater cognitive restraint (b=0.12, p=0.047). Women were more prone to emotional eating than men (b=0.21, p<0.001). Higher levels of education predicted greater uncontrolled eating (b=0.16, p=0.007) and emotional eating (b=0.12, p=0.039). Depression showed a positive relationship with emotional eating (b=0.19, p=0.001), and mediated the relationship between gender and emotional eating (b=0.04, p=0.009), and BMI and emotional eating (b=0.03, p=0.015). Those whose weight loss was at least 5% showed a greater improvement in the eating behaviors than those whose weight loss was below 5% (cognitive restraint: t(168)=-4.765, p<0.001, uncontrolled eating: t(168)=-2.442, p=0.016, and emotional eating: Z=-2.011, p=0.044). Conclusions - Results reveal certain determinants of eating behaviors that enhance or obstruct successful long term weight loss and highlight the role of eating behavior changes in weight loss. These mark intervention points for the optimization of results achievable by weight loss treatments.
Objective - To compare the intensity and the profile of psychotic symptoms and the characteristics of parental bonding of male schizophrenia patients with a history of homicide and those without a history of violent behaviour. Clinical question - We hypothesized more intense psychotic symptoms, especially positive symptoms as signs of a more severe psychopathology in the background of homicidal behaviour. We also hypothesized a more negatively perceived pattern (less Care more Overprotection) of parental bonding in the case of homicidal schizophrenia patients than in non-violent patients and non-violent healthy controls. Method and subjects - Symptom severity and symptom profiles were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a group of male schizophrenia patients (n=22) with the history of committed or attempted homicide, and another group (n=19) of male schizophrenia patients without a history of violent behaviour. Care- and Overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a third group of non-violent healthy controls (n=20), too. Results - Positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in the homicidal schizophrenia group were significantly (p<0.005) more severe than in the non-violent schizophrenia group. Non-violent schizophrenia patients scored lower on Care and higher on Overprotection than violent patients and healthy controls. Homicidal schizophrenia patients showed a pattern similar to the one in the healthy control group. Conclusions - It seems imperative to register intense positive psychotic symptoms as predictive markers for later violent behaviour. In the subgroup of male homicidal schizophrenia patients negatively experienced parental bonding does not appear to be major contributing factor to later homicidal behaviour.
[Our work aimed to review the published results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained in the course of alemtuzumab and teriflunomide therapy in multiplex sclerosis. In multiplex sclerosis MRI sensitively detects subclinical pathological processes, which do not manifest clinically in the early course of the disease, however have substantial significance from the viewpoint of the long-term disease prognosis. MRI has an increasingly important role in the early monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy. In the last 15 years several clinical trials have been conducted with alemtuzumab and teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis providing evidence about the favourable clinical effect of these drugs. MRI images were acquired in these trials as well, and the results published recently in the scientific literature. These MRI results denote the suppression of the disease activity and the neurodegenerative processes, which may imply a favourable effect on the long-term prognosis of the disease. ]
Objective - Patients were assessed in terms of risk factors, hematoma size and localization, the effects of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on mortality and morbidity, and post-stroke depression. Materials and methods - The present study evaluated the demographic data, risk factors, and neurological examinations of 216 ICH patients. The diagnosis, volume, localization, and ventricular extension of the hematomas were determined using computed tomography scans. The mortality rate through the first 30 days was evaluated using ICH score and ICH grading scale. The Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to determine the dependency status and functional recovery of each patient, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to assess the psychosocial status of each patient. Results - The mean age of the patients was 65.3±14.5 years. The most common locations of the ICH lesions were as follows: lobar (28.3%), thalamus (26.4%), basal ganglia (24.0%), cerebellum (13.9%), and brainstem (7.4%). The average hematoma volume was 15.8±23.8 cm3; a ventricular extension of the hemorrhage developed in 34.4% of the patients, a midline shift in 28.7%, and perihematomal edema, as the most frequently occurring complication, in 27.8%. Over the 6-month follow-up period, 57.9% of patients showed a poor prognosis (mRS: ≥3), while 42.1% showed a good prognosis (mRS: <3). The mortality rate over the first 30 days was significantly higher in patients with a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, a large hematoma volume, and ventricular extension of the hemorrhage (p=0.0001). In the poor prognosis group, the presence of moderate depression (39.13%) was significantly higher than in the good prognosis group (p=0.0001). Conclusion - Determination and evaluation of the factors that could influence the prognosis and mortality of patients with ICH is crucial for the achievement of more effective patient management and improved quality of life.
Background - Approximately 2% of patients admitted to the emergency department present with headache, which is often associated with vomiting, ocular pain, and earache. In rare cases, the presence of an abnormal communication between a cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system that creates a carotid cavernous fistula is the main cause of these symptoms. Case presentation - A 32-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with unilateral headache associated with earache on the same side, and pulsating tinnitus. On examination, we observed unusual appearance of our patient (small stature, unusually visible skin, lobeless ears). In the first 5 hours of our observation no neurological symptoms had been present, but after a severe vomiting, exophthalmos, subconjunctival suffusion and moderate ptosis developed. First, regarding the initial general symptoms, otorhinolaryngologist assessed the patient, and did not find any abnormality. Further, we ordered computed tomography and consulted a neurologist. Despite of the negative results we continued the observation because her symptoms did not improve. After appearance of neurological symp-toms, carotid cavernous fistula was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging and ophthalmologist consultation verified the diagnosis. For therapy, she was transferred to interventional neuroradiology. Because of the unusual appearance and carotic cavernous fistula, we ordered genetic examination. This indicated the presence of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in the background. The first major manifestation of the syndrome was observed at our department. Conclusions - Carotid cavernous fistula is an uncommon diagnosis in the emergency department; however, the early recognition of symptoms and early treatment can prevent further consequences of this potentially severe condition.
The combination of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation within the head and neck region is a rare condition, and interestingly, only a few cases have recently been published. Propagation of the vascular mass to the larynx and pharynx can cause breathing and swallowing difficulties. Due to these sypmtoms, examination and initiation of appropriate therapy for such patients are indeed challenging. We reviewed the literature available and present our case of a 64 year old woman emphasizing the complaints of sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation of the face and neck region. Polygraphic examination detected severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The MR examination of the neck revealed extensive vascular mass narrowing the pharyngo-laryngeal region, thereby causing temporal bone destruction on the right side with intracranial propagation. ENT examination demonstrated significant narrowing of the pharyngeal lumen and the laryngeal aditus caused by multiple hemangiomas. CPAP titration showed the minimalization of the apnea-hypopnea index on the effective pressure level. Regular CPAP usage resulted in diminishing a majority of the patient’s complaints. Our examination clearly demonstrates, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome coupled with significantly obstructing vascular malformation in the head and neck region can be effectively treated safely with a CPAP device, if surgical therapy is not possible. We summarized our findings and the data available in the literature to set up recommendations for the appropriate examination and therapy (including mask fit, etc.) of vascular malformations and hemangiomas causing pharyngo-laryngeal obstruction.
[Our aim was to investigate whether pollen allergy can affect bone mass and fractures in postmenopausal women. A total of 125 postmenopausal pollen allergic women (mean age 61.26 years) were split into four groups: treated neither with H1 histamine receptor (H1R) antagonist nor with inhaled corticosteroid (n=43), treated only with H1R antagonist (n=53), treated both with H1R antagonist and inhaled corticosteroid (n=17), treated only with inhaled corticosteroid (n=12) for at least five years, seasonally. One-hundred non-allergic postmenopausal subjects matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and age at menopause served as controls. Overweight and obesity (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI) were common among allergic women (76%). Allergic patients without treatment had a slightly lower bone density than their non-allergic mates. Untreated allergic had almost triple the rate of prevalent low-energy fractures (distal forearm, hip and clinical vertebral fractures: 34.9%) compared to non-allergic women (13%, χ2 p=0.003). Bone fracture occurred more often in H1R-only treated patients (30.19%) than in controls (χ2 p=0.01), however, clinical vertebral or hip fractures developed neither in those treated only with H1R antagonist nor in those who received both H1R antagonist and inhaled corticosteroid. Bone fractures were more frequent among patients with inhaled steroid treatment than among patients with a combined treatment of inhaled steroid and antihistamine (50% vs. 29.4%). BMI predicted prevalent fractures at 1.278 (95% CI, 1.047 to 1.559, p=0.016) for 1 kg/m2 increase among untreated allergic patients. In conclusion we found a high prevalence of low-energy fractures among pollen-allergic postmenopausal women, which was associated with obesity. It is possible that the H1R antagonists compensate for the negative effect of pollen-allergy and the adverse effect of inhaled corticosteroid treatment on bone fracture risk.]
Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice
[In the European Union, the prevalence of excess weight and obesity have dramatically increased. This increase is associated with inappropriate nutrition and the lack of physical exercise, which in turn lead to an increase of chronic ill health. Consequently, this will adversely affect the quality of life, as well as the life expectancy in the long run. The health of the Hungarian population is poorer than that of other European nations. Less life years are lost in Western European countries. Poor diet plays a pivotal role among other lifestyle associated risk factors affecting health. In light of the above evidence, actions plans and programmes have been designed, as well as ministerial decrees were issued in order to sustain and improve the health of the population. There is evidence that a strong relationship exists between diet and health. Excessive dietary intake of salt increases the risk of high blood pressure. Furthermore, excessive intake of salt, carbohydrates and fat can lead to cardiovascular and malignant diseases, as well as diabetes. Obesity can be prevented by a healthy diet. However, the role of supportive environment cannot be overemphasised when it comes to the introduction of a new, healthier diet and lifestyle.]
Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice
[The increase of incidence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide problem. Its therapy, as well as prevention, require holistic perception of the issue. The results demonstrate that these diseases cannot be perceived separately but from the perspective of health impact. The socio-economic area, the influences of ethnicity, cultural particularities and a lot of other factors must be considered. This article is focusing on the relation between the socio-cultural environment and perception of overweight and obesity as factors which can be directly reflected with preventive and therapeutic measures. The results show that ethnicity, cultural particularities, acculturation level, social status etc. are factors that influence the incidence of the relevant diseases to some degree. At present, there is lack of sufficient research studies which support the creation and implementation of culturally adequate interventions not only on the territory of the Czech Republic but worldwide. ]
Lege Artis Medicinae
[Insulin resistance is defined as a state of subnormal biological response to normal quantity of insulin. This phenomenon was first described by Hinsworth and Kerr in 1939, however it has come to the centre of interest only in the last two decades. It is the central pathogenetic factor of type 2 diabetes and the more complex clinical entity of metabolic syndrome, consequently also referred to as insulin resistance syndrome. In the background of insulin resistance alterations of the adipose tissue can be observed which clinically means obesity in most of the cases, however, this issue cannot be simplified to obesity only as increase in adipose tissue growth may be beneficial in certain cases. Current article discusses the explanation of this paradox and the pathophysiologic link between adipose tissue and insulin resistance. It also reviews the therapeutic aspects of insulin resistance emphasizing the role of thiazolidinedione type drugs having recently joined the therapeutic palette.]
Hypertension and nephrology
[In the 70s and 80s due to the heart attack „epidemic” the low fat diet was encouraged based on the cholesterol theory, with moderate success. At the same time, the consumption of carbohydrates increased with the frequency of obesity rising from 1971 to 30% in the USA. Foods with high glicemic index and rich in carbohydrates result in a fast increase in glucose level, insuline actions also leading to glucose – fatty acid transformation and weight gain. Over the last decades several comparative trials have proven that with the low carb diet one can lose about 3- more than with the low fat diet in half a year. The excessive low carbohydrate Atkins diet over 1 year (), was superior even to ZONE (), LEARN (), ORNISH () diet, in another trial, over two years also the „low fat” diet. International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) recommends an increased protein intake (15 → 25%) along with carbohydrate with low glicemic index (GI). According to the summarized guidelines of the Hungarian Society of Obesitology and Excercise Therapy (MOMOT) low calorie (1200-1500 kcal / day), low-carb (<45%) – low-GI, high-protein (≥ 25%), low-fat (38→30%) diet is recommended, by witch a weight loss of 10 kg/half year can be expected. After half a year patient compliance deteriorates and they can hardly keep even the low-carb diet, whose significant advantage diminishes by this. We hope that patient compliance can be helped with two new appetite decreasing drugs, namely lorcaserin and a combination of phentermin and topiramat. Future dietary recommendations may be influenced by the new guideline issued in November 2013 by AHA/ACC, and the Obesity Society the final approval of which by NHLBI can be expected by June 2014.]
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