Clinical Neuroscience

[Changes in the fibre contingent and caliberspectrum of spinal anterior roots in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]


JUNE 01, 1965

Clinical Neuroscience - 1965;18(06)

[Authors have processed 88 spinal anterior peduncles from 10 ALS cases. The fibre count and caliber measurement data showed that the cervical and thoracic anterior roots were most affected. Lesions were more modest in the lower thoracic and lumbar segments. The reduction in the number of root fibres was very marked in some cases. In ALS, the caliberspectrum varies, with the decrease in the number of thicker fibres (8-10 Y) being the earliest and most significant.]


  1. Budapesti Orvostudományi Egyetem Neurológiai Klinika



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Cerebral blood flow studies using the isotope dilution method]


[The authors present cerebral circulation data from a few patients in whom characteristic circulatory dynamics abnormalities were found, using their modified version of the isotope fluctuation circulation test method to demonstrate the performance of the method. The method allows a large number of circulatory data to be determined simultaneously (circulation times, blood flow through the brain, brain blood volume, cardiac output, circulating blood volume). From the shape and the relative position of the dilution curves, it is also possible to deduce circulatory dynamic abnormalities: e.g. thrombosis of the carotid intima-media, vascular malformations and, from the confusion in the arterial phasis, pathological processes of arterial origin in one hemisphere.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The significance of orbital congestion in the diagnosis of closed head injury]

ÁFRA Dénes, NAGY Vilmos

[Parietal congestion occurred in 43 of 259 closed head injury cases 1-6 weeks after the accident. During the subacute phase, 9 of 44 intracranial haematomas presented with congestive papilledema, while 11 of 103 patients without a space-occluding haemorrhage presented with the same fundus lesion. In the chronic period congestion of the fundus always occurred in the presence of subdural haematoma with one exception. The examination findings of the injured patients without haematoma with congestion included moderate disturbance of consciousness, neurological nodal symptoms, corresponding EEG abnormalities and abnormal CSF values. The contrast studies performed gave normal images with two exceptions. Moderate vascular dislocation in one patient and marked vascular dislocation in the second patient on AP angiogram resolved after 14 days of contrast. The subacute subocular lesion can be interpreted as a symptom of diffuse or circumscribed posttraumatic cerebral oedema, which always plays a role in the clinical picture. The suspicion of intracranial haemorrhage necessarily requires a contrast study (carotid angiography). ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effect of local hypothermia on brain electrical activity. Application of Peltier effect cooling head ]


[1. The Peltier effect cooling head is suitable for localized but well-controlled surface cooling of the brain. 2. Based on theoretical calculations and practical measurements, the limits of the deep penetration of surface cooling are determined. 3. Provided new data on the effects of surface cooling on brain electrical activity and strychnine spike activity. 4. We investigated the effect of local cooling on epileptiform electrical activity during surgery in a patient with temporal epilepsy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Polyarteritis nodosa manifesting as neuro-radiculo-myelitis]


[Authors describe a monosystemic case of polyarteritis nodosa localized only to the nerves. Clinically, in addition to the typical general symptoms and the typical course of the disease, organ symptoms were observed only in the nervous system. Detailed pathological and histopathological examination was consistent with clinical signs. Typical pathological lesions were found in the brachial vaso-anatritis of the brachial plexus, the veins of the cerebellar cortex, the bridge and the upper segments of the spinal cord.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]