Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

GARZULY Ferenc

NOVEMBER 20, 1993

Clinical Neuroscience - 1993;46(11-12)

[Book review of István Barakonyi, József Szántó, János Nikl:Liquor-citodiagnostics in clinical practice]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[In Memoriam György Bekény]

HORVÁTH Sándor

[After a life of struggle and success, and after a serious illness borne with dignity and discipline, death took him at the age of seventy-eight. Even in the last years of his life, ill but tireless, he served his vocation with his knowledge: healing and teaching; patients and interested students; the Clinic. Shortly before his death, he completed his last scientific work, The History of Hungarian Neurology.]

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[The illogical therapy]

SZIRMAI Imre, SUREK György, KAMONDI Anita, MAGYAR Hedvig, JUHÁSZ Csaba

[Most of the causative pathological factors in ischemic cerebrovascular events cannot be recognized during the acute stage of the disease partly because of to the complexity of biophysical model of cerebral microcirculation, partly because the causative factors in this model cannot be confidently weighted. Clinical diagnoses on cerebral circulation disorders are based on the fundamental causes of the disorders. Evoking factors are hypotheses, consequently therapies are directed to hypotheses. The mathematical model of cerebral microcircualtion is mondeterministic. The interactions between vascular factors and blood fluidity can be roughly estimated. Judging the therapeutic efficacy is hindered by the nondeterministic disease model, the indefinite clinical clues, their individual variations, heterogenous diagnostic groups, and tendency of spontaneous restoration of symptoms. Non-specific drugs are used to treat cerebral ischemia, and trials making use of monotherapies have failed to change the life expectancy or the clinical course of ischemic patients. The acute stage of the disease cannot be defined and because of the incompleteness of clinical indicators „stroke prevention" appeares to be ambiguious. Therefore, the nature of the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease is at present based on trial and error.]

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[Molecular characterization of the T cell receptor in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis - new therapeutical approaches]

KÁLMÁN Bernadett, LUBLIN D. Fred

[The authors review here the most recent literature on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, focusing on the efferent branch of the immune response. They attempt to describe the molecular characteristics of the myelin antigen specific T cell receptors. Identification of the most distinct properties of the disease mediating cells may not only provide clues to the etiology of MS, but also opens new avenues to specific therapeutical approaches.]

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[Experimential allergic encephalomyelitis multiplex sclerosis!]

KAPÓCS Gábor

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[Transcranial doppler of extracranial stenosis in internal carotid artery]

NAGY Valéria, BEDŐ György

[Endeavours were made to determine why mean velocity and pulsatility index changes in middle and anterior cerebral artery are caused by the unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery or by severe stenosis. The transcranial Doppler method is suitable for judgingre pathologic intracranial blood flow conditions, especially when data are compared to those of healthy conditions.]

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Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

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Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

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