Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

SZOBOR Albert, NAGY Tibor, ZSENI Annamária, VÉRTES László

AUGUST 01, 1985

Clinical Neuroscience - 1985;38(08)

[Dr. Ágnes Péter: Neurology, neuropsychology, Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest 1984. 256 pages, 29 illustrations, 8 colour plates. Péter Halász:Sleep and sleep disorders. Medicina Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1982. 242 pages, 16 figures Dr. Csaba M. Bánki: Results of biological research on alcoholism (Alcoholism Library, Medicina, 1984. 105 pages 7 figures) Häfner, H., Heimann, H. (eds.): Gerontopsychiatrie, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 1983. 22 figures, 25 tables]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Some problems in genetic counselling in schizophrenic psychoses]

CZEIZEL Endre, UNGVÁRI Gábor

[Authors summarize the key principles of diagnosis, genetics and genetic counselling of schizophrenic psychosis for practicing psychiatrists and the medical geneticist from the perspective of genetic counselling. With regard to the strategy of genetic counseling, the importance and simultaneous consideration of socio-cultural, socio-psychological factors and the family emotional-atmosphere are emphasized, in addition to nosological aspects. The special situation of schizophrenic (and psychiatric) patients and their families makes it advisable to set up a separate psychiatric genetic counselor. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical genetic aspects of neurocutaneous diseases - tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis, HLA-antigen testing and computed tomography diagnosis]

LÁSZLÓ Aranka, BARTHA László, CSOBÁLY Sándor, KAISER Gabriella, SVÉKUS András

[The authors performed HLA typing in 5 families with tuberous sclerosis (ST), demonstrating a significantly higher prevalence of HLA-A w31 antigen, without involvement of the B an antigen group. An autosomal dominant origin was confirmed in 4 families and a first gene mutation origin in 1 family, based on UV light examination of the outer skin of the family members, with detectable fluorescence of depigmented spots. Of 6 cases of neurofibromatosis (Nf), 4 were forme fruste forms, the inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant in 4 families and first gene mutation in 1 family was proven. The authors also discuss the diagnostic value of computed tomography in the above pathologies. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment of paranoid psychotics combined with group discussions in care]

KAPPÉTER István, BOROS Magdolna

[For more than three years in a psychiatric unit, they have managed to engage 6 of the 36 paranoid psychotics referred to them for an hour a week, who need extra help. At his request, 2 sensitive neurotics with neurotic neuroses were linked to the group. The group, which had been operating under the same conditions as before, was characterised by the emotional and experiential involvement of the therapists, treating the patients as equals and observing the group process passively and impartially. The results of such complementary treatment are good, although miracles are not expected. As a new finding compared to the scarce literature worldwide on outpatient group psychotherapy with psychotics, we found that disengagement in such groups is difficult and requires even greater empathy and more developed self-awareness of the therapists than the group design. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Myasthenic myasthenia gravis: Total muscle lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and LDH isoenzyme distribution]

SZATHMÁRY István, SELMECI László, PÓSCH Elek, SZOBOR Albert, MOLNÁR János

[The authors determined the total activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and malic dehydrogenase (MDH) per wet weight and the percentage distribution of LDH isoenzymes in muscle samples taken during thymectomy from the sternothyroid muscle of 62 patients with myasthenia gravis, and calculated the MDH/LDH ratio and the percentage of H and M subunits. In comparing their results with clinical data, they found that significant decreases in the percentage of LDH; isoenzyme and M subunit, and trend-like decreases in total LDH activity and increases in the MDH/LDH ratio per case, correlated with the degree of histopathologically detected ischemia in the samples and the frequency of clinically manifest ischemia and respiratory crises in the history. In their opinion, the biochemical abnormalities observed in the damaged muscle samples indicate a decrease in anaerobic glycolysis in the form of myasthenia gravis with myasthenia gravis associated with muscle atrophy. The histological examination revealed similar but milder abnormalities in intact muscle samples, in addition to an early biochemical sign of muscle destruction, raising the possibility of a possible biochemical level adaptive compensatory mechanism in myasthenic muscle. This study may be a useful adjunct to other known methods for the early detection of muscle wasting as a complication of myasthenia gravis. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Traumatic aneurysm in the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery]

KÖVÉR Ferenc, MÉREI F. Tibor, GELLÉT Marianna

[The course of a female patient with a traumatic aneurysm of the cortical branch of the cerebral medial artery two months after a covered skull injury with a lineal fracture of the lamina vitrea is described. It highlights the importance of performing angiography in cases where the cause of deterioration following trauma is not detected by CT scanning. It provides data to identify the morphological features of traumatic intracranial aneurysms by histological processing of the aneurysm. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]

KAPRONCZAY Katalin

[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Non-pharmacological prevention and treatment for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture - a systematic review]

VIDA Nóra, PAPP László

[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuropsychological rehabilitation following acquired brain injury]

TAMÁS Viktória, KOVÁCS Noémi, TASNÁDI Emese

[Neuropsychological rehabilitation or rehabilitation neuropsychology is a field within applied neuropsychology. It originally diverges from applied clinical and functional neuropsychology, although it could not be entirely differed from them. The unique nature of this area over the complexity is given by its process-controlled and system-approach aspects. In Hungary the number of neurorehabilitation centres and departments requiring neurocognitive rehabilitation has been continually increasing. Nevertheless, the number is still low; accordingly in our country this field is relatively young and isn’t well known. Authors of this review would like to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury and improvement of their quality of life with the theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as the necessity of future alterations and challenges emphasizing the need of a significant change of this narrow domain. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dysphagiafelmérések akut stroke-ban]

SZABÓ Pál Tamás, MÛHELYI Viktória, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Katalin Anna, KOVÁCS Andrea, BALOGH Zoltán, FOLYOVICH András

[Stroke associated dysphagia can have serious consequences such as aspiration pneumonia. The Hungarian guideline on nutritional therapy for stroke patients recommends dysphagia assessment, as early screening can optimize disease outcome and hospital cost. Thus far, this may be the first study in Hungarian that has documented a systematic review about the available validated dysphagia assessments of acute stroke. Purpose – The aim of this study was to summarize the instrumentally validated bedside dysphagia screening tools for acute stroke patients, which were published in the last twenty years. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of the validation studies, examine their study design, and sample the sub-tests and the diagnostic accuracy of the assessments. A systematic research was carried out of the literature between 2001 and 2021 in eight scientific databases with search terms appropriate to our objectives. Subjects of the study – 652 articles were found and were reduced to eight. We made a comparative analysis of these. The GUSS test reached a high level of sensitivity compared to the others. In our study sample, the prevalence of instrumentally confirmed dysphagia among acute stroke patients was 56.1%. The focus and the composition of the analyzed studies differed and posed problems such as the ambiguity of the concept of dysphagia, the difference in outcome indicators, or the timing of screening. The GUSS test, which offers domestic management, is a suitable tool for the Hungarian clinical use.]