Clinical Neuroscience

Anxiety management and functional magnetic resonance imaging - should it be a priority?

VANDULEK Csaba, DONKÓ Tamás, ILLÉS Anikó, EMRI Miklós, OPPOSITS Gábor, REPA Imre, KOVÁCS Árpád

SEPTEMBER 30, 2015

Clinical Neuroscience - 2015;68(09-10)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.68.0318

Background and purpose - Studies have shown that a high proportion of patients undergoing MRI examinations experience anxiety and distress which may compromise image quality and successful data acquisition. Research on fMRI related anxiety is limited as to date, therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the changes in anxiety as well as to examine its interactions with the implementation of a dedicated patient preparation phase prior to the examination. Methods - An fMRI examination consisting of six paradigms was performed on nine female and nine male healthy volunteers. Prior to the examination, the volunteers were subject to an extensive patient preparation phase including the professional support of a psychologist. The volunteers were subject to the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) pre and post fMRI. Blood pressure and heart rate were also measured pre and post fMRI examination. Results - A high level of trait and state anxiety was observed (STAI-T: 41.67±8.96; STAI-S: 34.78±9.79) prior to the examination. The level of state anxiety decreased significantly following the examination (STAI-S: 28.83±4.99, p<0.01). Correlation between the volunteers level of anxiety prior to the fMRI scan and the volume of the activation areas was observed in the finger-tapping (r=0.656; 0.561) and word generation (r=0.471) paradigms. Conclusion - The results of this study support the contribution of a supportive patient preparation phase inclusive of professional guidance to help reduce the volunteers’ level of distress and anxiety. These results encourage the study to be extended to clinical patients.

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Extreme delta brush EEG pattern in a case with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

SÖYLEMEZ Elif, GÜVELI Tekin Betül, ATAKLI Dilek, YATMAZOGLU Merve, ATAY Turan, DAYAN Cengiz

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NMDA-R encephalitis is caused by antibodies against the NMDA-R and characterized by a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disturbances. This disorder is often accompanied with malignancies, especially ovarian teratoma. Some patients’ EEGs show a different pattern similar to the waveforms of premature infants and this pattern is specifically named as extreme delta brush (EDB). We report a 24-year-old female having anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and EDB patern.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Molecular pathology of meningiomas]

MURNYÁK Balázs, CSONKA Tamás, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor

[Meningiomas represent nearly one-third of all adult primary brain tumours. According to their clinical and histologic appearance, they can be divided into WHO grades I-III. Almost 90% of meningiomas are benign, showing favourable response to conventional therapies, however, patients diagnosed with grade 2 and 3 tumours may have a poor prognosis. In addition, high frequency of tumour recurrence renders treatments more challenging even in benign meningiomas. Molecular-pathological profiling of meningiomas could lead to development of more effective therapies. Although the cytogenetic background of these tumours are already wellcharacterised, the majority of related genes and mutations is still unknown. Recently, high-throughput techniques enabled better characterisation of mechanisms involved in meningioma development, progression and recurrence. Furthermore, epigenetic dysregulation could offer new opportunities for both diagnosis and treatment of meningiomas. We provide a comprehensive overview of cytogenetic and molecular genetic defects as well as epigenetic alterations in meningiomas. Many of these may serve as biomarker or therapeutic target in the near future.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Turkish version Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST): Validity and reliability study

GULER Sibel, TURAN F. Nesrin

Background - Our aim was to translate the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) advanced by Troster (2005) and to analyse the validity and reliability of this questionnaire. Methods - Two hundred twelve consecutive patients with essential tremor (ET) and forty-three control subjects were included in the study. Permission for the translation and validation of the QUEST scale was obtained. The translation was performed according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After the translation, the final version of the scale was administered to both groups to determine its reliability and validity. Results - The QUEST Physical, Psychosocial, communication, Hobbies/leisure and Work/finance scores were 0.967, 0.968, 0.933, 0.964 and 0.925, respectively. There were good correlations between each of the QUEST scores that were indicative of good internal consistency. Additionally, we observed that all of the QUEST scores were most strongly related to the right and left arms (p=0.0001). However, we observed that all of the QUEST scores were weakly related to the voice, head and right leg (p=0.0001). Discussion - These findings support the notion that the Turkish version of the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor (QUEST) questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of the quality of life of patients with ET.

Clinical Neuroscience

Restless legs syndrome and insomnia frequency in patients with psoriasis

GULER Sibel, TEKATAS Aslan, ARICAN Özer, KAPLAN Sarı Özlem, DOGRU Yüce

Background - To assess the prevalence and severity of RLS in psoriasis patients and to investigate its effects on sleep and quality of life. Methods - Seventy patients with psoriasis in Trakya University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department and also applied to Neurology Department in the same center and 70 volunteer controls were enrolled in the study. Severity of the Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) was determined using International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria among the patients who have been diagnosed with RLS based on IRLSSG criteria. The presence of insomnia in patients was detected using International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-II) criteria. Additionally, to evaluate the severity of the disease and quality of life, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) tests were applied to the patients with psoriasis. Results - RLS frequency in patients with psoriasis was 28 (40%) compared to the control group 10 (14.2%), and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). IRLSSG severity scores were higher in patients with psoriasis who had insomnia secondary to RLS compared to those who did not have insomnia (p<0.001). The mean values of PASI were 7.54±6.52 in the presence of insomnia and 3.27±2.69 in the absence of insomnia. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). No significant difference was found in DLQI scores between patients with RLS and without RLS or between patients with and without insomnia (p>0.05). Discussions - RLS frequency in patients with psoriasis was significantly higher than in the control group. In addition, we found that RLS is more common but RLS severity was mildly high in patients with psoriasis relative to controls. However, there was a correlation between the increase in severity of RLS with secondary insomnia patients who were diagnosed with RLS. It may be beneficial to consider RLS and insomnia for each patient diagnosed with psoriasis.

Clinical Neuroscience

Multimodal quantitative characterization of intracranial epidermoid cysts: preliminary results

HORVÁTH Andrea, NAGY Szilvia Anett, PERLAKI Gábor, ORSI Gergely, BOGNER Péter, DÓCZI Tamás

Background and purpose - The differentiation of epidermoid cysts from other intracranial lesions with CT and conventional MR imaging is challenging. The risk of residual and recurrent disease is high and multimodal imaging should therefore promote a precise differential diagnosis. Since epidermoid cysts are histologically identical to middle ear cholesteatomas, MRI methods that are useful in the diagnosis of cholesteatoma; specifically EPI DWI and a non- EPI diffusion subtype (HASTE DWI) may possibly be applicable to epidermoid cysts. Besides testing the diagnostic utility of these methods on epidermoid cysts, our goal was to quantify the T1 and T2 relaxation times, the ADC values and the magnetization transfer ratios in order to acquire objective, characteristic information about their structure and contents. Finally, our goal was to provide the physician with a reliable, multimodal diagnostic tool that supports accurate surgical planning. Methods - Two patients with epidermoid cysts were examined. Besides the conventional MR scans EPI DWI, HASTE DWI, quantitative T1, T2 and magnetization transfer measurements were performed mappingwith a 3T MR scanner. After image registration, T1, T2 relaxation times and the magnetization transfer ratio inside a ROI were determined according to the lesion location on HASTE DWI. Mean ADC values inside the epidermoid cysts were also calculated by both mono-exponential and bi-exponential diffusion models. Results - Our results revealed relatively high T1 and T2 relaxation times and ADC values, and low magnetization transfer ratios in both subjects. Conclusion - HASTE-DW MRI provides accurate morphologic information on epidermoid cysts, while T1, T2, ADC and magnetization transfer ratio maps are quantitative techniques. Thus the combination of these methods results in a confident preoperative diagnosis and aids to determine the indication of retreatment in the event of recurrence.

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Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine

DEMIR Fıgen Ulku, BOZKURT Oya

Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

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Clinical Oncology

[Non-surgical treatment of the biliary tract and gallbladder cancer]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Are oppressive dreams indicators in bereavement?]

PUREBL György, PILLING János, KONKOLY THEGE Barna, BÓDIZS Róbert, KOPP Mária

[Objectives - It is widely believed that oppressive dreams are frequent in bereavement - despite the lack of scientific investigations of the subject. The aims of our study were the analysis of dream quality as well as the correlates of oppressive dreams in bereavement. Method - Participants with (N=473) and without bereavement were compared upon the database of a national representative study (Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel Survey 2006, N=4329). Dream contents were assessed with the Dream Quality Questionnaire (DQQ). Depressive symptoms (BDI-S) and the presence anxiety were also investigated. Results - Oppressive dreams occurred significantly higher frequency in the first year of bereavement (men: F=17.525, p<0.001, women: F=8.291, p=0.004). Oppressive dreams were significantly associated with anxiety (F=37.089, p<0.001) and with depressive symptoms (F=50.562, p<0.001). Discussion - Oppressive dreams are significantly more frequent in the first year of bereavement, and may act as indicators of bereavement-linked mental health consequences like depression and anxiety. These are often masked by the symptoms of grief and therefore remain untreated. Our preliminary results could be a starting point for the development of further research aiming to clarify the relationship amongst dream contents, anxiety, and depression in bereavement.]