Clinical Neuroscience

[Abstracts of the 6th Pannonian Symposium on CNS Injury 5-6th April, 2013, Pécs, Hungary]

MARCH 30, 2013

Clinical Neuroscience - 2013;66(03-04)

[Abstracts of the 6th Pannonian Symposium on CNS Injury 5-6th April, 2013, Pécs, Hungary 2013;66(03-04)]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Antiepileptic drugs in treatment of epilepsy and follow up of their efficacy]

GYIMESI Csilla, BÓNÉ Beáta, TÓTH Márton, HORVÁTH Réka, KOMOLY Sámuel, JANSZKY József

[Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases usually demanding long term treatment. The prime goal of therapy is to achieve seizure freedom with avoidance of side effects. Precise diagnosis is fundamental selecting the proper antiepileptic drug(s). In addition of wide-spectrum antiepileptics, selective syndrome-specific antiepileptic drugs are available. Pharmacological features of the new antiepileptics allow more personalized clinical use. Aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive pragmatic review of therapeutic possibilities and recommendations currently accessible in Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Inclusion body myositis - a rarely recognized disorder]

DÉZSI Lívia, DANIELSSON Olof, GÁTI István, VARGA Edina, VÉCSEI László

[Inclusion body myositis is the most common disabling inflammatory myopathy in the elderly. It is more frequent in men and after the age of 50 years. Inflammatory and degenerative features coexist. There is a T-cell mediated autoimmunity driven by in situ clonally expanded cytotoxic CD8-positive T-cells invading non-necrotic muscle fibres expressing MHC-I antigen. The hallmarks of degeneration are the deposition of protein aggregates and the formation of vesicles. The course of the disease is slow and the diagnosis is usually set after several years. The muscle weakness and wasting is assymetric, affecting predominantly distal muscles of the upper extremity and proximal muscles of the legs. The signs and clinical course can be characteristic, but the diagnosis is established by muscle biopsy. There is currently no evidence based effective treatment for sIBM. Prednisone, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine and IFN-β failed. Oxandrolon did not improve symptoms. Treatment with intravenous immunglobuline (IVIG) induced in some patients a transient improvement of swallowing and of muscle strenght, but the overall study results were negative. A T-cell depleting monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab), in a small uncontrolled study slowed down disease progression for a six-month period. Repeated muscle biopsies showed the reduction of T-cells in the muscle and the suppression of some degeneration associated molecules. An effective therapeutic mean should act on both aspects of the pathomechanism, on the inflammatory and the degenerative processes as well.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effects of spinal cord stimulation on heart rate variability in patients with chronic pain]

KALMÁR Zsuzsanna, KOVÁCS Norbert, BALÁS István, PERLAKI Gábor, PLÓZER Enikõ, ORSI Gergely, ALTBACKER Anna, SCHWARCZ Attila, HEJJEL László, KOMOLY Sámuel, JANSZKY József

[Background - Spinal cord stimulation has become an established clinical option for treatment of refractory chronic pain and angina pectoris, but its precise mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on heart rate variability (HRV) and evaluating its influence on the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in chronic pain. Materials and purpose - Seven patients (three men, four women) with SCS due to chronic pain were included. The SCS was programmed in three different ways: (i) to stimulate at an amplitude known to generate paresthesias (ON-state), (ii) at a subliminal level (SUB state), or (iii) switched off (OFFstate). HRV analysis was based on 5-min segments of the consecutive normal RR intervals and was performed with custom software (Kubios HRV Analysis). Results - The mean heart rate was higher in ON state compared to SUB state (p=0.018) and the high-frequency component of the HRV was lower in ON compared to OFF period (p=0.043). Other HRV parameters values did not significantly differ during the three tested periods. Conclusion - Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain seems to be accompanied by reduced parasympathetic tone, unlike SCS in angina pectoris where previous studies found a reduced cardiac sympathetic tone. Our study might lead to understand the mechanism of action of SCS We investigated a relatively small number of patients, which is the main limitation of our study. Thus, further studies with larger number of patients are required for validation of our results.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[10 years, 600 monitoring sessions - our experience with the video EEG monitoring of children]

SIEGLER Zsuzsa, HEGYI Márta, JAKUS Rita, NEUWIRTH Magda, PARAICZ Éva, SZABÓ Léna, FOGARASI András

[Introduction- The only Hungarian video EEG laboratorywhere children of ages 0-18 can be continuously monitoredfor several days was opened 1 June 2001 at Department ofNeurology of Bethesda Children’s Hospital.Objectives- Summarizing our 10 years of experience withthe video EEG monitoring (VEM) of children and defining theplace of VEM in the treatment of childhood epilepsy inHungary.Patients and methods- We have processed data from 597monitoring sessions on 541 patients between June 1, 2001and 31 May, 2011 based on our database and the detailedsummaries of the procedures. Results- 509 patients were under the age of 18. The average length of the sessions was 3.1 days. We haveobserved habitual episodes or episodes in question in 477(80%) sessions. 241 (40%) sessions were requested with anepilepsy surgery indication, and 74 patients had 84 opera-tions. 356 (60%) were requested with a differential diagnosisindication, and 191 (53%) cases of epilepsy werediagnosed. We most commonly diagnosed symptomaticgeneralized epilepsy (57 cases). In 165 sessions the episodein question was not diagnosed as epilepsy. Among theparoxysmal episodes we have identified events ofpsychogenic origin, movement disorders, sleep disordersand behavioral disorders. Only 3% of the differential diag-nosis procedures brought no additional clinical information.Discussion- The diagnostic efficiency in our VEM laborato-ry is in accordance with the data found in the literature.Besides epilepsy surgery VEM is recommended if suspectedepileptic episodes occur and interictal epileptiform signs arenot present or are not in accordance with the symptoms, ifthere is no explanation for therapy resistance and if paroxys-mal episodes of non-epileptic origin are suspected but theycannot be identified based on the anamnesis. VEM is also helpful in diagnosing subtle seizures. The procedure hasnumerous additional benefits in patient care and in trainingthe parents and hospital staff. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Efficacy of deep brain stimulation in our patients with Parkinson’s disease]

GERTRÚD Tamás, TAKÁTS Annamária, RADICS Péter, RÓZSA Ildikó, CSIBRI Éva, RUDAS Gábor, GOLOPENCZA Péter, ENTZ László, FABÓ Dániel, ERÕSS Loránd

[Background and purposes - In advanced Parkinson’s disease, medically refractory motor fluctuation or medically resistant tremor considerably affects quality of life. However, these symptoms can be mostly successfully treated by deep brain stimulation. We analyzed the efficacy of bilateral subthalamic stimulation in our patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods - We assessed the clinical data of ten patients who have been treated in the Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University and have been operated in the National Institute of Neurosciences between 2008 and 2011. The Hoehn-Yahr scale score, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score and the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire 39, as well as the dose of antiparkinson medication were documented prior to and one year after surgery. Results - Patient condition improved according to the Hoehn-Yahr scale, approximately by two stages. The dose of antiparkinson medication could be reduced by 63.4% (p=0.005) post operation. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores decreased by 70.9% (p=0.005). 12 hours after medication withdrawal, execution of daily activity improved by 57.1% (p<0.01) and motor functions developed by 79.1% (p<0.01). Duration of dyskinesias decreased by 62.5% (p=0.018), duration of akinesia diminished by 87.5% (p=0.005). Quality of life rose by 41.6% (p<0.01). Neuropsychological tests detected improvement in verbal memory. Conclusion - With deep brain stimulation, the dosage of antiparkinson medication could be significantly reduced, with considerable improvements in motor function and quality of life. Although the number of patients is still low, good results have been established by careful patient selection, precise neurosurgical procedure and by appropriate programming and patient care.]

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[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

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[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]

ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

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[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]

ÓCSAI Lajos

[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

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