[Vitamin D supply and the effect of short term calcium and vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia]


AUGUST 20, 2003

Ca&Bone - 2003;6(04)

[INTRODUCTION - The effect of short-term calcium and vitamin D supplementation by a clinical nutriment on bone formation and resorption was studied in postmenopausal women with normal or decreased calcidiol serum levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Ninety-one postmenopausal women (age, 60-75 years) were enrolled in the study to investigate the effect of 1120 mg calcium and 208 IU vitamin D in a complex composition (Fortimel®, Nutricia) on bone turnover after 4 weeks of treatment. All women suffered from osteopenia or osteoporosis detected by bone densitometry. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and bone turnover markers (serum β-CrossLaps, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase) were determined before and after the treatment. Moreover, calcidiol serum level was also measured at the beginning of the study to assess vitamin D supply. A questionnaire was used to assess gastrointestinal side effects and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was calculated to estimate the risk of kidney stone development. RESULTS - In the entire patient group the mean serum level of β-CrossLaps was elevated (526.97±29.26 pg/ml) before the study and decreased during the treatment (485.58±28.27 pg/ml, p=0.03).The mean serum level of osteocalcin (28.58±1.37 vs. 27.03±1.36 ng/ml, p=0.025) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (200.46±8.72 vs. 186.94±11.64 U/l, p=0.033) both decreased.The serum 25-OH vitamin D3 was below 30 ng/ml in 20 patients before the treatment, suggesting vitamin D deficiency.A correlation (r=0.508, p<0.001) between the decrease of bone formation and the decrease of bone resorption was found only in patients with normal serum 25-OH vitamin D3 concentration (>30 ng/ml). However, bone turnover did not decrease in patients with calcidiol deficiency. Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio remained unchanged during the treatment, but two patients suffered from constipation and one of them had diarrhea due to the calcium supplementation. CONCLUSIONS - Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in a complex clinical nutriment proved to be effective in decreasing bone turnover in postmenopausal women with good vitamin D supply, even after a short treatment period of 4 weeks. However, this treatment was ineffective in patients with vitamin D deficiency suggesting the importance of serum calcidiol measurement before calcium supplementation. Calcium in complex with other nutrients such as citrate did not increase the risk of renal stone formation in the short run, and only caused gastrointestinal problems in a tiny fraction of patients.]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, I. Számú Belgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest
  2. Ferencvárosi Önkormányzat Regionális Osteoporosis Központ, Budapest
  3. Heves Megyei Önkormányzat Markhot Ferenc Kórház-Rendelõintézet, Eger
  4. Budavári Önkormányzat Egészségügyi Szolgálat, Budapest
  5. Belváros, Lipótváros Egészségügyi Szolgálat, Budapest
  6. Petz Aladár Megyei Kórház, Gyõr
  7. Komárom-Esztergom Megyei Önkormányzat Szent Borbála Kórház, Tatabánya
  8. Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Ortopédiai Klinika, Pécs
  9. Fejér Megyei Szent György Kórház, Székesfehérvár
  10. Szent András Állami Reumatológia és Rehabilitációs Kórház, Hévíz
  11. Flór Ferenc Kórház, Reumatológiai Osztály, Kistarcsa
  12. Jávorszki Ödön Kórház, Vác



Further articles in this publication


[Quality of life and osteoporosis]


[Quality of life and osteoporosis 2003;6(04)]


[The effects of thyroid hormones on bone]


[The effects of thyroid hormones on bone tissue are of fundamental importance.They are required for skeletal development and later for normal bone metabolism.Their action is dose-dependent and also depends on the degree of differentiation of the target tissue. In childhood, thyroid hypofunction manifests itself in growth retardation, whereas hyperfunction will accelerate bone maturation.The exact mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on bone in later years is poorly understood, and their clinical relevance on the risk of bone fracture, the most important complication, is also unclear. In adults with hypothyroidism, bone mineral density (BMD) remains unchanged or even becomes increased, but the risk of fractures is elevated. In hyperthyroidism the bone turnover is increased, which may lead to a decrease in BMD and a higher risk of fracture. However, the results are inconsistent for endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, where BMD may also decrease and fractures may occur more frequently.Treatment of hypothyroidism may temporarily result in increased fragility but this phenomenon seems to be only transient. During L-T4 replacement therapy the TSH level should be kept in the normal range, while with suppression, it should be set to the lower end of the normal range. During treatment of hyperthyroidism BMD temporarily increases and the risk of fractures decreases.The most effective way of preventing osteoporosis and bone fractures in all cases is the early recognition and treatment of thyroid diseases.The presence of other osteoporosis risk factors should always be considered. In some cases adjuvant therapy may be necessary to stop bone loss.]


[Renal stone formation after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism]

BERCZI Csaba, BALÁZS György, LUKÁCS Géza, TÓTH Csaba

[INTRODUCTION - The incidence of renal stone formation was studied in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Ninety-two patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism were included in the study. In Group 1 the patients (n=44) had kidney stones before parathyroidectomy. Patients with no history of nephrolithiasis (n=48) before the operation were assigned to Group 2. After the operation the occurrence of renal stones was assessed for both groups.The presence of any association between the recurrence of renal stones and various clinical parameters was analysed. RESULTS - The serum concentration of Ca and parathormone decreased to the normal range in both groups after the operation. Stone formation was observed in nine cases in five patients during follow-up. All five patients belonged to Group 1.Thirty-three % of these recurrent stones were diagnosed within the first year and 89% within 5 years. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant association between recurrent stone formation and gender, age, preoperative serum levels of Ca and parathormone or the histology of parathyroid glands. CONCLUSION - The incidence of recurrent renal stones after successful parathyroidectomy significantly decreased in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.]





[Assessment of quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis - A comparative study on the Hungarian adaptations of EuroQoL and Nottingham Health Profile]

PÉNTEK Márta, LICKER-FÓRIS Edit, LOVAS Kornélia, KALÓ Zoltán, TÓTH Miklós, TULASSAY Zsolt, RATKÓ István, GENTI György

[INTRODUCTION - After a brief introduction to the definition of quality of life and the importance of its measurement, two questionnaires, the EQ-5D and the Nottingham Health Profile are presented. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Fifty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were included in the two-year prospective study to assess quality of life by the two generic questionnaires. Correlations were sought between the results of the EQ-5D and the Nottingham Health Profile, as well as between bone fractures and changes in quality of life.The validated Hungarian version of the Nottingham Health Profile was applied for the first time in postmenopausal osteoporosis. RESULTS - With the treatments applied, quality of life dimensions did not change significantly during the follow-up period and no significant correlation was found between the incidence of bone fractures and changes in quality of life.The pain, physical mobility, emotional reactions and energy dimensions of the validated Hungarian Nottingham Health Profile and its derivated index showed significant correlations with those of the EQ-5D. CONCLUSION -The validated Hungarian version of the Nottingham Health Profile quality of life questionnaire is a useful and applicable measurement tool in postmenopausal osteoporosis which correlates with the EQ-5D health state measure.]

All articles in the issue

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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Identifying osteoporosis in a primary care setting with quantitative ultrasound]

HIRDI Henriett Éva, SZOBOTA Lívia

[Osteoporosis is one of the most under-diagnosed and under-treated health conditions. In recent decades, several risk indices have been developed to identify women at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) who require a BMD test. This study aimed to demonstrate that quantitative ultrasound bone density measurement can indeed be performed simply by nurses working in primary care, which can significantly facilitate early detection of osteopenic and osteoporotic conditions. Method: The medical records of all patients who had an ultrasound of the left heel using the quantitative heel ultrasound machine between March 2021 through December 2021 were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 20-64-year-old adults (N=1032). Calcaneal quantitative ultra­sound parameters were registered with Sonost-2000 bone densitometer. The body composition was measured using a multi-frequency segmental body composition analyzer. The measurement results were evaluated with SPSS 22.0 statistical program and descriptive statistics. The mean age of the population studied was 43.12±9.6 years; 29.7% were men and 70.3% were women. Of the women in our study, 2.4% were osteoporotic (T ≤ −2.5), and 49.86% were classified as osteopenic according to the WHO operational definition. Osteopenic values were measured in 32.35% of men. A total of 273 subjects (26.45%) in the study sample were in the 50-64 age group (223 women and 50 men). 4% of women over the age of 50 had osteoporosis and 63.7% had osteopenia. Rating of the OST score no one was placed in the high-risk group. Of the 9 women with osteoporosis, 8 were classified as low-risk and 1 as medium based on OST. Nurses in primary care are able to identify key risk factors for osteoporosis, examine the measurement with quantitative ultrasound, and identify individuals with the disease. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Management of bone metabolism in epilepsy

UÇAN TOKUÇ Ezgi Firdevs , FATMA Genç, ABIDIN Erdal, YASEMIN Biçer Gömceli

Many systemic problems arise due to the side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used in epilepsy patients. Among these adverse effects are low bone mineral density and increased fracture risk due to long-term AED use. Although various studies have supported this association with increased risk in recent years, the length of this process has not been precisely defined and there is no clear consensus on bone density scanning, intervals of screening, and the subject of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In this study, in accordance with the most current recommendations, our applications and data, including the detection of possible bone mineralization disorders, treatment methods, and recommendations to prevent bone mineralization disorders, were evaluated in epilepsy patients who were followed up at our outpatient clinic. It was aimed to draw attention to the significance of management of bone metabolism carried out with appropriate protocols. Epilepsy patients were followed up at the Antalya Training and Research Hospital Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Outpatient Clinic who were at high risk for osteoporosis (use of valproic acid [VPA] and enzyme-inducing drugs, using any AED for over 5 years, and postmenopausal women) and were evaluated using a screening protocol. According to this protocol, a total of 190 patients suspected of osteoporosis risk were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were excluded from the study due to secondary osteoporosis. Of the 186 patients who were included in the study, 97 (52.2%) were women and 89 (47.8%) were men. Prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) was 42%, in which osteoporosis was detected in 11.8% and osteopenia in 30.6% of the patients. Osteoporosis rate was higher at the young age group (18-45) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.018). There was no significant difference between male and female sexes according to osteoporosis and osteopenia rates. Patients receiving polytherapy had higher osteoporosis rate and lower BMD compared to patients receiving monotherapy. Comparison of separate drug groups according to osteoporosis rate revealed that osteoporosis rate was highest in patient groups using VPA+ carbamazepine (CBZ) (29.4%) and VPA polytherapy (19.4%). Total of osteopenia and osteoporosis, or low BMD, was highest in VPA polytherapy (VPA+ non-enzyme-inducing AED [NEID]) and CBZ polytherapy (CBZ+NEID) groups, with rates of 58.3% and 55.1%, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference between drug groups according to bone metabolism markers, vitamin D levels, and osteopenia-osteoporosis rates. Assuming bone health will be affected at an early age in epilepsy patients, providing lifestyle and diet recommendations, avoiding polytherapy including VPA and CBZ when possible, and evaluating bone metabolism at regular intervals are actions that should be applied in routine practice.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Novelties in the diagnosis and treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia]

RUESZ György Sándor, MIKES Bálint, CSIZEK Zsófia, HORVÁTH Orsolya

[X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common inherited cause of phosphate wasting. Its pathogenesis is complex, determined by the dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. We review herein the pathophysiology of XLH leading to multiple manifestations, stages of diagnosis and the treatment strategies. XLH is now in the scientific interest of pediatric nephrology, because a new treatment modality, burosumab became available in Hungary. Burosumab is a monoclonal antibody against fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). XLH is caused by the loss of function mutations in ”phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked” (PHEX) gene, which results enhanced secretion of the phosphaturic hormone FGF-23. The diagnosis of XLH is based on signs of rickets and/or osteomalacia and decreased growth velocity in association with hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting in the absence of vitamin D or calcium deficiency. Conventional treatment with oral phosphate supplementation together with active vitamin D (calcitriol or alfadiol) can improve bone metabolism, but only partial results can be achieved, and can promote side effects (nephrocalcinosis). The better understanding of the role of PHEX gene and FGF-23 levels in the pathomechanism helped to identify therapeutic options more properly. With monoclonal antibody therapy against FGF-23 the disease process can be interrupted, and complications can be prevented if the therapy is initiated in time. However, deformities already leading to disability cannot regress completely during burosumab therapy, highlighting the need of early diagnosis and the start of the biological treatment before complications.]


[Evaluation of quality of life following treatment with calcitonin nasal spray in patients with osteoporosis: preliminary results of the MERLIN study]


[INTRODUCTION - MERLIN (Management of Osteoporosis in Elderly with Calcitonin) is an open-label, multicenter, prospective, follow-up study conducted in Hungary, part of which is to assess the impact of treatment with Miacalcic, - an intranasal salmon calcitonin, on the quality of life (QoL) among patients with osteoporosis. In this paper we report the preliminary results of the MERLIN study. PATIENTS - The study initially involved 1949 senior patients (aged >65 years) to whom calcitonin was prescribed for osteoporosis according to the application instructions. Patients presented at outpatient clinics and consisted of two groups; they were either newly diagnosed or they had been receiving a therapy for osteoporosis other than calcitonin. METHODS - This latter group discontinued their previous treatment and all patients received 200 IU intranasal salmon calcitonin (SCT) once daily for three months. Patient and physician questionnaires were used to collect information on the patients' QoL (EQ-5D VAS) and their general well-being at baseline and at follow-up visits at week 4 and week 12. RESULTS - Calcitonin use was associated with improvements in all EQ-5D domains and component scores as well as in VAS. Patients with previously known osteoporosis who, switched to calcitonin therapy achieved better results (0,046 QALY), than the newly diagnosed patients (0,0405 QALY). CONCLUSIONS - We conclude that intranasal SCT 200 IU daily is safe and effective in improving QoL of both, male and female patients with low bone mineral density.The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are limited due to the lack of a control group and to the unblinded design. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these results. Nevertheless, our study was the first in Hungary to evaluate the quality of life impact of an osteoporosis treatment, and hopefully it will be followed by more such studies directed to other osteoporosis treatments.]


[Bone metabolism and body mass index in postmenopausal women]

TÁRCZY Csaba, TOLDY Erzsébet, SZERB János, VARGA László

[INTRODUCTION - In addition to several other causes constitutional factors play an important role in the development of osteoporosis.Various aspects of bone metabolism were examined to explain the differences in bone density between women with low and high body mass index (BMI). PATIENTS AND METHOD - One hundred and ninetytwo postmenopausal women were included in the study. Bone density was measured by forearm densitometry.To assess bone formation, serum osteocalcin levels were measured, while the rate of bone absorption was estimated from C-terminal telopeptide levels of collagen type I measured in urine and blood. RESULTS - The prevalence of osteoporosis was higher in women with low BMI than in those with normal or higher BMI. Bone metabolism - both formation and absorption - was increased in both groups, however, in women with low BMI this increase was more pronounced and bone metabolism tended to be shifted to absorption compared to patients with normal or higher BMI. CONCLUSION - Postmenopausal lean women have accelerated bone metabolism compared to obese women. This fact and the shift to absorption may be the main reasons for the higher frequency of osteoporosis found by densitometry in women with low BMI than in those with higher BMI.]