Ca&Bone

[Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy]

SZABÓ András, MUCSI István (szerk.)

SEPTEMBER 11, 2007

Ca&Bone - 2007;10(03)

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Ca&Bone

[Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in daily practice in view of contraindications]

KOVÁCS LÁSZLÓ

[The current reimbursement regulations that came into effect this summer for the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis require calcium and vitamin D supplementation in addition to antiporotic agents if appropriate conditions are met. In this paper, the author reviews those conditions that represent contraindications for calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Among these, the extremely rare vitamin D intoxication is mentioned and a detailed list of disorders resulting in hypercalcaemia is given with emphasis on the most common causes such as hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. With hypercalcuria and renal stone disease, the diet low in calcium appears to have no effect on the outcome; moreover recent studies demonstrate beneficial effect of increased calcium intake, although the optimal calcium and vitamin D supplementation needs further clarification in these conditions. This review highlights the role of additional factors in increasing the risk such as hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia, as wells as the excessive protein and potassium-chloride intake or the pharmacological differences of various calcium supplements. The article underscores the use of activated vitamin D products in severe renal failure to prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. The new regulations represent a significant improvement in the therapy of patients with osteoporosis, however the individualized therapy and follow up, the good relationship between patient and physician contribute to the optimal therapeutic effects and to minimize the side effects.]

Ca&Bone

[FORTHCOMING CONGRESSES]

Ca&Bone

[Femoral head osteonecrosis in a child with acute lypmhoblastic leukemia]

GÁCS ZSÓFIA, KOVÁCS GÁBOR, HOSSZÚ ÉVA

[INTRODUCTION - The treatment of pediatric leukemia has become increasingly successful, with a survival rate over 80%. Thus interest has been increasingly focused on the long-term side-effects of the treatment. The questions of reduced fertility rate, occurance of second malignancies, cardiomyopathy, impaired renal and pulmonal function have been extensively studied. Changes of bone metabolism in connection with the disease itself and the treatment have been analysed in the past decade. CASE REPORT - We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who had bone pain soon after the diagnosis. During the course of chemotherapy his complaints were fluctuating, and he developed severe osteoporosis. The level of a bone resorption marker, β-CrossLaps, was elevated. In the second year of therapy an acute pain of the left hip occured with fever and restriction of joint movement, which was diagnosed and treated as osteomyelitis. A few months later avascular necrosis of the left femoral head was revealed. Both pharmaceutic (calcium, vitamin D, calcitonin, bisphophonate) and orthopedic treatment were used, as a result bone mineral density and movement restriction improved; his leukemia is now in remission. CONCLUSIONS - The factors influencing bone metabolism in leukemic children are reviewed. Firstly the effects of malignant cells on bone mineral content are analyzed, then the chemotherapeutic drugs’ mechanisms of action are examined extensively. The direct and indirect effects of secondary factors (hospitalization, immobility, lack of sun exposure, malabsorption, immunsuppression, peripheral neuropahty) are also analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of drugs used in preventing and treating childhood osteopenia are reviewed.]

Ca&Bone

[NEWS OF THE HUNGARIAN OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOARTHROLOGY SOCIETY]

Ca&Bone

[Dear Colleagues and Readers!]

HORVÁTH CSABA

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We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

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Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

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