Lege Artis Medicinae

[The Mouldy Lizard The Depiction of Diphtheria in 20th Century Hungarian Prose]

PINTÉR László

JANUARY 21, 2006

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2006;16(01)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[People get fat - fats die out]

NAGY Viktor

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING PROBIOTICS IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES]

DEMETER Pál

[The mammalian intestinal tract contains a complex, dynamic and diverse society of microorganisms. The beneficial effects of developing a normal bacterial flora are: colonic resistance against pathogens, immunmodulation and intact intestinal barrier. Probiotics are live microbial supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance after oral administration. The health benefits of probiotics have been the subject of increased research interests. This paper gives a review of the literature that study the roles of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection and hepatic encephalopathy. In human studies the examined probiotics are safe, tolerable and seem to be effective in conditions of diarrhea caused by antibiotics, traveller's diarrhea and pouchitis. In other above-mentioned conditions further randomized and controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate their efficacy. Based on these results, in the research and manufacturing of genetically-engineered probiotic bacteria a major leap is expected.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[MODERN PRINCIPLES OF EARLY DETECTION, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN LUNG CANCER]

OSTOROS Gyula, KOVÁCS GÁBOR, BÖSZÖRMÉNYI Nagy György, STRAUSZ János

[New clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer contain important advancements. It is necessary therefore that these novelties are widely known by health care professionals. With an existing X-ray screening network in Hungary, we have a unique chance to discover lung malignancies in an early stage in the population. Annual screening is recommended in risk groups over 40 years of age using a nation wide established digital screening network technology. In the therapy of small cell lung cancer there has been no major advance in the past ten years. However, by today, the number of small cell lung cancer patients represent only about 15% of all lung cancer cases. There have been advancements in other fields of the therapy of non small cell lung cancer. Third generation cytotoxic agents used in a platinum based chemotherapy protocol improved quality of life, response rate and survival time. Radiochemotherapy used in locally advanced stages also represented a step forward. In early stage of non small cell lung cancer it has been revealed that significantly improved survival time can be reached with adjuvant combined cytotoxic chemotherapy. Based on these results adjuvant chemotherapy became part of the therapeutic protocol. The use of molecular targeted chemotherapy in the clinical practice of non small cell lung cancer treatment is also a novelty. New therapeutic approaches are epidermal growth factor inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, antivascular, signal transduction modifiers, apoptosis inducing, eicosanoid signal transduction modifiers and immunotherapeutic drugs. Placebo controlled trials have proved the effectiveness of the epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in the second and third line therapy of non small cell lung cancer and can be administered in the European Union in this indication. The improvement in the complex care of lung cancer patients in Hungary is characterized by the gradual increase in the prevalence data, meaning the gradual increase of the number of lung cancer patients still alive.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Even Science is Not the Same Any More?]

MAGYAR László András, BÁNFALVI Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[In the focus: sleep disturbances]

HALÁSZ Péter, SZŰCS Anna

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Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Advanced Parkinson’s disease characteristics in clinical practice: Results from the OBSERVE-PD study and sub-analysis of the Hungarian data]

TAKÁTS Annamária, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DÉZSI Lívia, ZÁDORI Dénes, VALIKOVICS Attila, VARANNAI Lajos, ONUK Koray, KINCZEL Beatrix, KOVÁCS Norbert

[The majority of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease are treated at specialized movement disorder centers. Currently, there is no clear consensus on how to define the stages of Parkinson’s disease; the proportion of Parkinson’s patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, the referral process, and the clinical features used to characterize advanced Parkinson’s disease are not well delineated. The primary objective of this observational study was to evaluate the proportion of Parkinson’s patients identified as advanced patients according to physician’s judgment in all participating movement disorder centers across the study. Here we evaluate the Hungarian subset of the participating patients. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional, non-interventional, multi-country, multi-center format in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Current Parkinson’s disease status was assessed with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II, III, IV, and V (modified Hoehn and Yahr staging). Non-motor symptoms were assessed using the PD Non-motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS); quality of life was assessed with the PD 8-item Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Parkinson’s disease was classified as advanced versus non-advanced based on physician assessment and on questions developed by the Delphi method. Overall, 2627 patients with Parkinson’s disease from 126 sites were documented. In Hungary, 100 patients with Parkinson’s disease were documented in four movement disorder centers, and, according to the physician assessment, 50% of these patients had advanced Parkinson’s disease. Their mean scores showed significantly higher impairment in those with, versus without advanced Parkinson’s disease: UPDRS II (14.1 vs. 9.2), UPDRS IV Q32 (1.1 vs. 0.0) and Q39 (1.1 vs. 0.5), UPDRS V (2.8 vs. 2.0) and PDQ-8 (29.1 vs. 18.9). Physicians in Hungarian movement disorder centers assessed that half of the Parkinson’s patients had advanced disease, with worse motor and non-motor symptom severity and worse QoL than those without advanced Parkinson’s disease. Despite being classified as eligible for invasive/device-aided treatment, that treatment had not been initiated in 25% of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Hungarian Radiology

[The incidence of Hirschsprung disease with associated congenital anomalies]

WEISENBACH János, KONDOR Ariella, KHEZRI Seddiq, VAJDA Péter

[INTRODUCTION - Several publisactions described the association of Hirschsprung disease with other congenital anomalies. Most studies were in relation with the neurological, ophthalmological and ear-nose-throat disorders. The authors did not find any publication in the Hungarian literature presented other anomalies in patients with Hirschsprung disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The data of 43 patients treated for Hirschsprung disease at the Department of Paediatrics of Pécs University was analysed. The most frequent associated anomalies e. g. Down syndrome, omphalocele, anorectal malformation, annular pancreas, torticollis, syndactylia, Meckel diverticulum, upper urinary tract disorder and undescendent testis were studied. The patients who had several congenital anomalies were evaluated separately as well as those having congenital inguinal hernia. The authors compared the number of congenital anomalies occurred in patients with Hirschsprung disease with the incidence of these congenital disorders occurred in non-Hirschsprung patients in the literature. RESULTS - Among 43 patients, 6 children had associated congenital anomalies. 3 patients had only one of the following disorders: undescendent testis, urinary tract duplication and Down syndrome. 3 patients suffered from multiplex congenital anomalies: 1. Down syndrome with annular pancreas and torticollis. 2. Omphalocele, anal atresia, vesicoureteric reflux and syndactylia. 3. Anus atresia, Meckel diverticulum and limb (radius) hypoplasia. In addition 3 patients had other anomalies such as unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernia and umbilical hernia. CONCLUSION - On the basis of our results we can state that the incidence of other associated congenital anomalies are higher in patients with Hirschsprung disease. Single organ developmental anomaly is rare, it usually occurs in association with multiorgan disorders. Most likely this is the explanation why patients with Hirschsprung disease have more associated anomalies.]

LAM KID

[Why twins are different? - About twin research]

ERDŐS Edina, BÁLINT Bálint László

[Twin studies had an important role in the development of medicine. In this review, we present the available data of Hungarian twin studies and the number of twins in Hungary on the basis of statistical data. Comparing these data with international ones and taking into account probable prevalences, we aim to provide an estimation of the number of twins in Hungary who have cancerous diseases. Our estimation suggests that creation of a national database for such twins is feasible and could provide a great help for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of cancerous diseases.]