Clinical Neuroscience

[Symptomatic subependymomas of the ventricles. Review of twenty consecutive cases]

VITANOVICS Dusan, ÁFRA Dénes, NAGY Gábor, HANZÉLY Zoltán, TURÁNYI Eszter, BANCZEROWSKI Péter

NOVEMBER 28, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(11-12)

[Background and purpose - Intraventricular subependymomas are rare benign tumors, which are often misdiagnosed as ependymomas. To review the clinicopathological features of subependymomas. Patient selection and methods - Retrospective clinical analysis of intraventricular subependymomas and systematic review of histological slides operated on at our center between 1985 and 2005. Results - Twenty subependymomas presented at the median age of 50 years (range 19-77). Two (10%) were found in the third, three (15%) in the forth, and 15 in the lateral ventricles. There was male preponderance (12 vs. 8). Ataxia (n=13) and papilledema (n=7) were the most common clinical presentations. Fifteen patients underwent gross total resection, and five had subtotal resection. None of the cases showed mitotic figures, vascular endothelial proliferation or necrosis. Cell proliferation marker MIB-1 activity (percentage of positive staining tumor cells) ranged from 0 to 1.4% (mean 0.3). Two cases were treated with preoperative radiation therapy (50 Gy) before the CT era, three other patients received postoperative radiation therapy for tumors originally diagnosed histologically as low grade ependymomas. Three patients (15%) died of surgical complication between one and three months postoperatively, and three patients died of unrelated causes in eight, 26 and 110 months. Fifteen patients were alive without evidence of tumor recurrence at a median follow-up time of 10 years. Conclusion - Subependymomas are low-grade lesions and patients do well without adjuvant radiotherapy. Small samples from more cellular areas may be confused with low grade ependymomas, and unnecessary radiotherapy may follow. Recurrences, rapid growth rates should warrant histological review, as hypocellular areas of ependymomas may also be a source of confusion.]

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[The interactive neuroanatomical simulation and practical application of frontotemporal transsylvian exposure in neurosurgery]

BALOGH Attila, CZIGLÉCZKI Gábor, PÁPAI Zsolt, PREUL C. Mark, BANCZEROWSKI Péter

[Background and purpose - There is an increased need for new digital education tools in neurosurgical training. Illustrated textbooks offer anatomic and technical reference but do not substitute hands-on experience provided by surgery or cadaver dissection. Due to limited availability of cadaver dissections the need for development of simulation tools has been augmented. We explored simulation technology for producing virtual reality-like reconstructions of simulated surgical approaches on cadaver. Practical application of the simulation tool has been presented through frontotemporal transsylvian exposure. Methods - The dissections were performed on two cadaveric heads. Arteries and veins were prepared and injected with colorful silicon rubber. The heads were rigidly fixed in Mayfield headholder. A robotic microscope with two digital cameras in inverted cone method of image acquisition was used to capture images around a pivot point in several phases of dissections. Multilayered, high-resolution images have been built into interactive 4D environment by custom developed software. Results - We have developed the simulation module of the frontotemporal transsylvian approach. The virtual specimens can be rotated or tilted to any selected angles and examined from different surgical perspectives at any stage of dissections. Important surgical issues such as appropriate head positioning or surgical maneuvers to expose deep situated neuroanatomic structures can be simulated and studied by using the module. Conclusion - The simulation module of the frontotemporal transsylvian exposure helps to examine effect of head positioning on the visibility of deep situated neuroanatomic structures and study surgical maneuvers required to achieve optimal exposure of deep situated anatomic structures. The simulation program is a powerful tool to study issues of preoperative planning and well suited for neurosurgical training.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Tailored cranioplasty using CAD-CAM technology]

VITANOVICS Dusan, MAJOR Ottó, LOVAS László, BANCZEROWSKI Péter

[Objective - The majority of cranial defects are results of surgical intervention. The defect must be covered within resonable period of time usually after 4-6 week given the fact that the replacement of bone improve the brain circulation. Number of surgical techniques and materials are available to perform cranioplasty. Due to favorable properties we chosed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as material. In this paper the authors show a procedure which allows tailored artificial bone replacement using state of art medical and engineering techniques. Methods - between 2004 and 2012, 19 patients were operated on cranial bone defect and a total of 22 3D custom- designed implants were implanted. The average age of patients was 35.4 years. In 12 patients we performed primary cranioplasty, while seven patients had the replacement at least once. Later the implants had to be removed due to infection or other causes (bone necrosis, fracture). All patients had native and bone- windowed 1 mm resolution CT. The 3D design was made using the original CT images and with design program. Computer controlled lathe was used to prepare a precise-fitting model. During surgery, the defect was exposed and the implant was fixed to normal bone using mini titanium plates and screws. All of our patients had control CT at 3, 6 and12 months after surgery and at the same time neurological examination. Results - Twenty-one polyethylene and one titanium implants were inserted. The average follow-up of the patients was 21.5 months, ranged from two to 96 months. We follow 12 patients (63.15%) more than one year. No intraoperative implant modifications had to be made. Each of the 22 implant exactly matched the bone defect proved by CT scan. No one of our patients reported aesthetic problems and we did not notice any kind of aesthetic complication. We had short term complication in three cases due to cranioplasty, subdural, epidural haemorrhage and skin defect. Conclusion - Polyethylene is in all respects suitable for primary and secondary cranioplasty. Combined with 3D CADCAM method excellent aesthetic and functional result was achieved. In our study no case of infection occured. Proper preoperative preparation is important.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurocognitive impairments of HIV infected individuals - Preliminary results of a national prevalence study in Hungary]

LAKATOS Botond, SZABÓ Zsuzsa, BOZZAI Barbara, BÁNHEGYI Dénes, GAZDAG Gábor

[Background and purpose - The outcome of HIV infection has dramatically improved due to the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Opportunistic infections faded and internal and hemato-oncological diseases along with neurological conditions came to the forth. Present study is to evaluate neurocognitive performance of the Hungarian HIV infected individuals, at first in this setting. Patients and methods - We performed this cross-sectional pilot study within the frames of a national, single-center; prospective study on group of HIV infected patients, analyzing medical data and neurocognitive performance. Based on international recommendations visual memory, visuomotor coordination, non-verbal learning ability, executive functions and reaction time were tested by six domains of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (Vienna Test System). Results - Data of 59 enrolled HIV individuals were analysed; nine of whom were women (15%), median age 42.6 (IQR: 32.4-48.1) years. In 32.2% (n=19) of patients neurocognitive impairment was detected. Duration of infection and cART treatment time tended to be longer in impaired group (not significant). Lower CD4 cell count at the time of examination (p=0.047), psychiatric diseases other than depression (p=0.005) were found significantly associated with impairment; tertiary education qualification were more common (p=0.033) among non-affected patients. By correlation analysis age, infected time and duration of cART were significantly associated with motor deficit. Conclusion - HAND was detected in almost one third part of examined patients, which largely corresponds that in developed countries were observed. Duration of infection and of cART therapy associated motor deficit was found to be the most common impairment. This finding might be interpreted by direct effect of HIV, neurotoxicity of antiretrovirals and also by accelerated ageing of this population.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[A rare paroxysmal movement disorder: Mixed type of paroxysmal dyskinesia]

AYSU Sen, DILEK Atakli, BAHAR Guresci, BAKI Arpaci

[Paroxysmal dyskinesias are rare, heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by recurrent attacks of involuntary movements. The four classic categories of paroxysmal dyskinesias are kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic, exercise-induced and hypnogenic. There are some patients that do not fit in these four groups of paroxysmal dyskinesia and are termed as “mixed type”. We describe a 13-year-old girl who had features of both paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia that was misdiagnosed as refractory epilepsy. She improved substantially with a combination of carbamazepine and clonazepame. It is important to recognize the clinical presentation of paroxysmal dyskinesias and distinguish these movement disorders from other disorders, such as psychogenic disorders and epilepsia, for deciding the treatment and prognosis of the patients. This case highlights the importance of the recognition of a rare paroxysmal movement disorders.]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

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