Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

TÖRÖK István

JANUARY 01, 1961

Clinical Neuroscience - 1961;14(01)

[Müller--Hegemann : Psychotherapie. 1957. Veb Verlag Volk u. Gesundheit. Berlin. 264 0. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Malignant angioblastoma spreading between the soft tissues ("Lindau disease") ]

POTONDI András

[The author describes a case of a rapidly progressive, fatal cerebellar solid angioblastoma (Lindau), which spread diffusely along the blood vessels and between the soft tissues. He briefly reviews the literature on the subject, which did not find angioblastoma spreading in a similar manner. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Intravenous urea: new agent for intracranial pressure increase in intracranial pressure]

ZAPPE Lajos, VIDOVSZKY Tamás

[Our experience, which we have presented in the form of a preliminary bulletin because of the small number of cases, suggests that i.v. urea will be a much more effective and reliable tool than hypertonic solutions (dextrose, etc.) in the treatment of intracranial hypertension. The development of a side-effect-free home preparation is currently underway; we will report on clinical trials of this on larger material and on studies of the mechanism of action. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Our experience with Urevert, Report on our surgical observations ]

GOMBI Róza, HULLAY József

[The authors describe their experience with Urevert, a new intracranial pressure reliever. It was used to reduce increased intracranial pressure caused by brain tumours (4), ruptured aneurysms (2) and subdural haematoma (1) in 7 patients. They observed that Urevert is an easy to administer and accurately dosed dehydrating agent. It is excellent for reducing increased intracranial pressure. It reaches its maximum effect within 1-2 hours and can therefore be administered primarily as a preoperative preparation. No unpleasant side effects have been observed. Indication is wide, contraindications are active intracranial haemorrhages and various severe liver and kidney diseases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Max Nonne]

KÖRNYEY István

[The author reports on Max Nonne's life. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Catamnosis of children with elective mutism]

LÓRÁND Blanka

[The author describes 11 cases of elective mutism - with particular reference to catamnestic data recorded years later. The symptom usually comes to attention in preschool or during school enrolment. It is strikingly often associated with vegetative dystonia, enuresis and mental retardation. Although polyaetiological factors are frequently present in the history, the author is under the impression that in a significant proportion of cases, a congenitally reduced speech ability is primarily responsible for the manifestation of e.m. The therapeutic approach varies according to the type of reaction and pathogenesis. He concludes that, when sufficient time was available, the therapeutic outcome was durable in the vast majority of cases (7 complete cures, 2 improvements). The catamnestic monitoring of the therapeutic outcome also serves the purpose of facilitating and providing empirical support for the prognosis.]

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[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]

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Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuropsychological rehabilitation following acquired brain injury]

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[Neuropsychological rehabilitation or rehabilitation neuropsychology is a field within applied neuropsychology. It originally diverges from applied clinical and functional neuropsychology, although it could not be entirely differed from them. The unique nature of this area over the complexity is given by its process-controlled and system-approach aspects. In Hungary the number of neurorehabilitation centres and departments requiring neurocognitive rehabilitation has been continually increasing. Nevertheless, the number is still low; accordingly in our country this field is relatively young and isn’t well known. Authors of this review would like to draw attention to the importance of rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury and improvement of their quality of life with the theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as the necessity of future alterations and challenges emphasizing the need of a significant change of this narrow domain. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dysphagiafelmérések akut stroke-ban]

SZABÓ Pál Tamás, MÛHELYI Viktória, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Katalin Anna, KOVÁCS Andrea, BALOGH Zoltán, FOLYOVICH András

[Stroke associated dysphagia can have serious consequences such as aspiration pneumonia. The Hungarian guideline on nutritional therapy for stroke patients recommends dysphagia assessment, as early screening can optimize disease outcome and hospital cost. Thus far, this may be the first study in Hungarian that has documented a systematic review about the available validated dysphagia assessments of acute stroke. Purpose – The aim of this study was to summarize the instrumentally validated bedside dysphagia screening tools for acute stroke patients, which were published in the last twenty years. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of the validation studies, examine their study design, and sample the sub-tests and the diagnostic accuracy of the assessments. A systematic research was carried out of the literature between 2001 and 2021 in eight scientific databases with search terms appropriate to our objectives. Subjects of the study – 652 articles were found and were reduced to eight. We made a comparative analysis of these. The GUSS test reached a high level of sensitivity compared to the others. In our study sample, the prevalence of instrumentally confirmed dysphagia among acute stroke patients was 56.1%. The focus and the composition of the analyzed studies differed and posed problems such as the ambiguity of the concept of dysphagia, the difference in outcome indicators, or the timing of screening. The GUSS test, which offers domestic management, is a suitable tool for the Hungarian clinical use.]