Lege Artis Medicinae

[TRANSBRONCHIAL NEEDLE ASPIRATION IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SARCOIDOSIS]

ZSIRAY Miklós, BADÁR Éva, UDUD Katalin, FÜLÖP Andrea, SZABÓ Zsuzsanna, MATESZ István, MARKÓCZY Zsolt

OCTOBER 20, 2004

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2004;14(10)

[INTRODUCTION - The histological pattern of sarcoidosis and cytological characteristics are similarly unspecific. Nevertheless, both forms of the diagnosis based on morphology can be taken into consideration if the clinical picture and chest X-ray respectively, are fitted and other diseases are excluded. PATIENTS, METHOD AND RESULTS - Enlargement of hilar lymph nodes is present in 80% of cases of sarcoidosis. In this study, transcarinal needle aspiration combined with rapid on-site cytological staining was performed in the case of 33 patients with I. or II. stage of sarcoidosis. The sensitivity was found to be 76%. CONCLUSION - Since the cytologist can inform the bronchologist fairly soon: during the bronchoscopy, bronchial mucosal biopsies or transbronchial lung biopsies are only necessary to obtain in about quarter of patients.]

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[13th European Stroke Conference]

KÁPOSZTA Zoltán

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LONG-TERM RESULTS OF ENDOSCOPIC SPHINCTEROTOMY - EFFECTS OF THE TRANSECTION OF BILE PAPILLA]

DÖBRÖNTE Zoltán

[The abolishment of the choledochoduodenal pressure gradient due to endoscopic sphincterotomy results in the enhancement of the enterohepatic circulation of the bile salts, in the reduction of the cholesterol saturation index and in the modification of the gallbladder function: the reduced gallbladder storage time and the increased ejection fraction facilitates gallbladder emptying. On the contrary, bacterial colonisation of the bile ducts due to duodenobiliary reflux plays a causative role in the increased risk of pigment stone formation. However, when the biliary tree is well-drained, no clinically relevant chronic inflammation develops, furthermore there is no evidence for an increased cancer risk caused by the duodenobiliary reflux. Long-term complications may occur in about 12%, as the recurrence of common bile duct stones, post-EST papillary stenosis, and biliary symptoms caused by retained gallbladder stones. Risk factors for recurrence of bile duct stones are juxtapapillary duodenum diverticulae and persistently dilated bile ducts being the main reason for papillary restenosis and sphincterotomies are mainly performed because of papillary stenosis. In cases of retained gallbladder with stones patency of the cystic duct and contractility of the gallbladder are important predictive factors of late gallbladder complications as it was confirmed by our investigations. Accordingly, small gallbladder stones may pass spontaneously after EST. The indication of a cholecystectomy following EST should be considered individually, particularly in elderly patients. As 30-year-experience confirms, EST is a safe and effective treatment of choledocholithiasis and papillary stenosis even in the long term, and also in young patients. Regular follow-up of patients with high risk for recurrent biliary symptoms is recommended to detect late complications and treat them endoscopically in time.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CARE OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN THE GENERAL PRACTICE]

HIRSCHBERG Jenő

[The cleft lip and palate (i.e. facial cleft) is a frequent and distorting abnormality. The basics of the successful management are the early introduction of therapy and a well-trained team with all relevant specialists included (surgeon, otolaryngologist, orthodontist, speech therapist) as well as good collaboration with the parents and general practitioners being also an important factor. The author with his co-workers has performed more than 6000 surgeries in about 3500 children with facial cleft in the last 45 years and has treated 60-70 patients annuallly with velopharyngeal insufficiency without cleft. According to his experience and international data he summarizes the etiology, pathomechanism of facial clefts and discusses its symptoms, functional consequences and the surgical and conservative solutions are suggested. The recent Hungarian prevalence is 1:500. Specific prevention does not exist, the 5-6% recurrent cleft risk may be decreased to half by administration of folic acid. The generally accepted timing of the lip plasty is the 3-month age. The palatoplasty may be performed in one or two stages, but closure of the velum should be made before the development of speech by all means. The logopedic treatment (speech therapy) should be started, if the speech disorder is already obvious and the child is able to cooperate with the speech therapist. If conservative therapy is unsuccessful, (velo)pharyngoplasty is proposed at the age of 5. The orthodontic treatment should begin in mixed dentition, major nose correction and oral surgery are allowed only after puberty. Just because of a cleft the infant does not aspirate, the brestfeeding is beneficial and could be performed in most cases. Regular hearing control is recommended because of frequent ear and hearing problems. It is suggested to provide the parents with written instruction about outcome, prognosis and timetable of management, which could be helpful also for the general practitioners.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[CURRENT PRACTICAL VACCINOLOGY]

JELENIK Zsuzsanna

[The author deals with the current situation and new trends of vaccinology by focusing on the interests of practitioners. The main topics are the changes of antigens (such as pertussis, measles, or poliomyelitis) to provide better efficacy and milder reactogenity or less adverse events. Purifying the vaccines, like thiomersal and human proteins free vaccines is another proven method to achieve better safety. New antigens e.g. Rota, Lyme, meningococcus B are in the pipeline of vaccinology. The aim of producing a combined vaccine is to achieve immunity against more diseases with less inconvenience for the patient, while achieving higher vaccine coverage (DPT-Hib-HBV-IPV). The epidemiological and clinical experiences will influence the current vaccine schedule such as revaccinations of MMR, and remove the need for revaccinations of BCG and hepaB. The special target groups of immunizations are the elderly and patients with chronic disease. Groups of specialists are working on the vaccine recommendation guidelines for certain risk groups. At the same time, with the successful eradication of polio in Europe the practitioners now have to face the antivaccination movement, as well. The main tools to convince people about the benefit of vaccinations are health education and information.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[REVERSAL]

MATOS Lajos

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[BRONCHUS ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE LYMPHOMA]

HERTEL Katalin, ZSIRAY Miklós, SOLTÉSZ Ibolya

[INTRODUCTION - Primary lymphomas rarely occur in the lung. CASE REPORT - The authors present the case of an asymptomatic 61-year-old man. The patient was identified on routine chest X-ray having a streak infiltrate in the upper lobe of the right lung, which did not respond to antibiotics. On histological examination of the bronchoscopic specimen BALT- (bronchus associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma was presumed. Since staging showed the disease to be localized, lobectomy was performed. The patient is symptom-free 16 months after surgery and there is no relapse. CONCLUSION - Although BALT-lymphomas are of low-grade malignancy in most of the cases, relapses can develop in the original organ or in other extra-nodal locations years later and BALTlymphomas may also transform into large-cell lymphomas of more aggressive behaviour.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Myasthenia in a patient with sarcoidosis and schizophrenia (in English language)]

RÓZSA Csilla, KIS Gábor, KOMOLY Sámuel

[A 44-year-old male patient was hospitalised with paranoid schizophrenia in 1985. Depot neuroleptic treatment was started which successfully prevented further psychotic relapses for the next ten years. His myasthenia gravis started with bulbar signs in 1997 and the symptoms soon became generalized. The diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was confirmed by electromyography, by positive anticholinesterase test and by the detection of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in the serum. Mediastinal CT examination showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes on the left but no thymic pathology was observed. Mediastinoscopy was performed and biopsies were obtained from the affected nodes. Histology revealed sarcoidosis. The patient suffered respiratory crisis following the thoracic intervention (in September 1998). Combined oral corticosteroid (64 mg methylprednisolone/e.o.d.) and azathioprine (150 mg/day) treatment regimen was initiated and complete remission took place in both the myasthenic symptoms and the sarcoidosis. The follow-up CT scans showed no mediastinal pathology (January 2000). During steroid treatment a transient psychotic relapse occured which was successfully managed by supplemental haloperidol medication added to his regular depot neuroleptics. The patient currently takes 150 mg/day azathioprine and receives 40 mg/month flupentixol depot im. His physical and mental status are stable and he has been completely symptome free in the last 24 months. The association of myasthenia gravis and sarcoidosis is very rare. To our best knowledge no case has been reported of a patient suffering from myasthenia gravis, sarcoidosis, and schizophrenia at the same time.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Sarcoidosis involving liver and spleen, and with hypercalcemia]

TÓTH Mónika, WENINGER Csaba, MORÓ Zsuzsanna, SZOMOR Árpád

[INTRODUCTION - Sarcoidosis is a relatively common multisystemic disorder. Chest involvement is most frequent, but any organ can be involved. In case of abdominal lesions the suspicion of sarcoidosis rarely arises. CASE REPORT - A 53-year old female patient with a history of crural pain unresponsive to medications and weight loss of unknown origin was sent to the internist. Hypercalcemia and bone pain suggested multiple myeloma, however, this diagnosis could not be confirmed. Chest X-ray examination was negative. Splenomegaly and multiple hypodens splenic and hepatic lesions were detected by ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography. Finally, ultrasound guided biopsy of the liver proved stage II sarcoidosis. Steroid therapy was initiated and the splenic and hepatic lesions seen with ultrasound and CT scan disappeared. CONCLUSION - Sarcoidosis is usually suspected following chest X-ray or during chest CT examination. Nevertheless, our case demonstrates that multiple lesions in the spleen or liver may indicate sarcoidosis even in the absence of thoracic lesions. Biopsy taken from the lesions can lead to adequate diagnosis.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Endobronchial ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pulmonary and mediastinal malignancies]

MORÓCZ Éva, STRAUSZ János

[Endobronchial ultrasonography can be performed during conventional bronchofiberoscopy. The main indications are intrathoracic malignancies. Endobronchial ultrasonography has a great signficance in the diagnosis of mediastinal and lung processes and in staging of lung cancer. Endobronchial ultrasound is superior to computed tomography in evaluation of the disorders of tracheal and bronchial wall. The summary about this new modality is based on the international references and the authors’s own experiences.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LATE COMPLICATION OF EXTRANODAL LYMPHOMA FOLLOWING DERMATOMYOSITIS]

VÁNCSA Andrea, PONYI Andrea, CONSTANTIN Tamás, GERGELY Lajos, DANKÓ Katalin

[INTRODUCTION - Intramuscular follicular Bcell lymphoma is a rare entity of malignant lymphomas complicating the disease course of dermato/polymyositis. CASE REPORT - The authors report a female patient who was diagnosed with dermatomyositis in 1963 (age of 36). She was given steroid and hydroxychloroquine therapy. In 1973 she was treated with steroid for Boeck sarcoidosis. In 1999, she was treated for steroid therapy again for reoccurence of dermatomyositis. In 2000, a histological diagnosis of primary intramuscular follicular lymphoma was established from the right thigh region. She was given several courses of polychemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the lymphoma was difficult to control, and she died of progressive disease in 2003. CONCLUSION - It is an interesting case as 37 years elapsed since the diagnosis of dermatomyositis before the lymphoma has started. We could not state a definite relation between the myositis and the lymphoma but the increased frequency of autoimmune diseases is probably due to immune regulatory problems, that have eventually led to the appearance of the rapidly growing indolent lymphoma.]