Lege Artis Medicinae


GYŐRFFY Zsuzsa, LŐRINCZ Jenő, ÁDÁM Szilvia, KOPP Mária

JULY 20, 2004

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2004;14(07)

[INTRODUCTION - In Hungary the number of induced abortions is three times higher than in European Union countries. The exploration of the bio-psycho-social factors in the background of abortions may serve as an instrument to develop effective prevention. METHODS - The Hungarostudy 2002 national representative study included 12,634 interviewed subjects. The sample represents the Hungarian population above the age of 18, according to gender, age and geographical location. The aim of the health survey was to analyse the physical and psychological status of the Hungarian population as well as the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of abortion in the female sub-sample was 22%. We analysed the background factors of abortion with the help of a statistical analysis. RESULTS - The risk factors behind abortions can be grouped as: physical abuse on behalf of partners and/or parents, attachment disorder and early traumatisation, lack of social support, low financial status and inadequate social environment. These factors have all shown significant connection to abortions. Suicide attempts and suicidal thoughts, high Beck Depression (BDI) scores, smoking and alcohol consumption are also significant among those who had abortions. CONCLUSION - An important aim of the Hungarostudy 2002 survey and the follow-ups is to serve a more extensive and effective prevention by exploring the background factors of induced abortions.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hormonal contraception above the age of 40]


Lege Artis Medicinae



[One of the forms of conservative treatment of incontinent patients is pharmacological therapy. The choice of medicine for the conservative treatment of an incontinent patient is based on the diagnosis formulated by applying the appropriate diagnostic procedures. As far as pharmacological treatment is concerned, it is for the treatment of incontinence caused by idiopathic and neurogenic involuntary detrusor contraction. There are medicines for everyday clinical practice, partly uroselective ones with mainly anticholinergic effects. In case of stress incontinence the reduction of the symptoms can be expected by using an agent that increases the tone of the closing muscle of the urethra. In overflow incontinence the aim of the pharmacological treatment is to reduce the overflow resistance.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Athens: hopes and question marks]


Lege Artis Medicinae



[The author presents a review about the fundamental principles of normal endothelial function and the main causes for the development of endothelial dysfunction. First of all, endothelial dysfunction results in structural alterations in the wall of the vessel - the „vascular remodelling” in hypertension - and that is the base of hypertensive microangiopathy and target organ damage. In patients with high blood pressure the reactivity of vessels is impaired by the endothelial dysfunction. The members of the main drug groups can influence the vasoactive factors produced in endothelium differently. This different effects of drugs create different clinical benefits. Especially, the ACE inhibitors, the calcium antagonists (mostly the new generation of dihydropyridines) have endothelial protective effects, but some β-blockers, α-1 adrenergic blockers and - in a totally different way of action - the statins are capable of influencing the endothelial dysfunction.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[The number of diabetic patients will be doubled in the coming decades reaching 300 million for year 2025. The number of type 1 diabetics will also be increased but the majority of it will result from the increased number of type 2 diabetics. All types of diabetes are the consequence of a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, meaning that the prevention of diabetes epidemic cannot be done without the clarification of the genetic background. Significant progression has happened in the discovery of the genetic background of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It was helped by the etiologic classification of the disease: with the new classification the patient groups became more homogeneous. The HLA system is responsible for about 50-70% of the genetic risk while the effects of other genetic factors contribute 1-2% of the genetic susceptibility, respectively. Presently 25 gene regions are known as the different genetic factors of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Regarding the HLA system, the genes and pathomechanism causing the disease are not known. The classification of diabetes mellitus can be based on the HLA type while the predictability of type 1 diabetes mellitus is helped by the HLA type and the INS-VNTR. Much less is known about the genetic background of the polygenic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its manifestation is now happening at younger age before. The best-fit genetic model consists of only a few genes with moderate effect superimposed on a polygenic background. Several „candidate” genes participating in the impaired insulin secretion and insulin action have already been investigated as the genes responsible for type 2 diabetes. These data showed the specificity in the population and most showed mild or modest association with the disease. Genomewide scans have resulted a number of significant diabetes susceptibility genes specific for a variety of populations, but these investigations have only resulted in the isolation of one gene (calpain 10) that is thought to contribute to type 2 diabetes. Most recent genomewide scans found loci on chromosome 20 in two different populations with significant segregation of type 2 diabetes. These loci are near to the region harboring the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor genes. The transcription regulator HNF family is responsible for the regulation of the expression of several genes participating in the function of liver and pancreatic islet becoming a strong candidate for being a diabetes gene.]

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Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Relationships in recovery, recovery in relationships]


[INTRODUCTION - Some of the recent researches based on analyses of autobiographies pointed out, that the quality and the quantity of our social relations are in connection with our life longevity, and the frequency of words referring social roles and integration gives a respective measurement possibility of it. Conception of the term “social words” had been introduced. The influence of the degree of social support to the recovery from alcohol addiction is also a well-known phenomenon. Based on the above we supposed that examining their autobiography vocabularies we find special differences which can show the distinction between the social support of the relapsed and recovering addicted persons. We planned to prove the being of these special differences via revealing bias of the frequency and pattern of social word usage. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Two separate groups were created for purpose of the examination. The first consisted of relapsed alcohol dependent persons, who were treated in hospital (department of addiction psychiatry) diagnosed alcohol-dependent (F 10.2) (and nothing else) at least twice within a year (N=30). We chose earlier treated (because of alcohol-dependency, and nothing else mental disease) persons who had been being abstinent for at least 2 years into the second group (N=20). Beside the earlier diagnosis we used the parts of the ASI test to sreen any other mental diseases. We created similar groups with regards to gender, age and qualification. We collected autobiographies from the persons, and made two common documents of them. Afterwards we compared these documents by the Atlas.ti 5.0 (trial free version) content analysing software. We defined the frequency of the found social words in the rate of these words and the sum of the words in the whole text. We found the most prominent difference between the frequency of social words referring to the family and relatives, opposite the words dealing with friendship. RESULTS - In the latter case we could not detect any difference between the two groups. We got results confirming our hypothesis in the frequency of such words as “help”, “love”, “give” and “get”. We experienced in connection with the pattern that the words referring to social organisations, for example “team”, “community”, “company”, “club”, “meeting”, “collective” and the word “guest” practically did not appear (R<0.001) in the texts of relapsed persons, while they could be detected in the case of the recovering group (R=0.023). We did khisquare test to compare the frequency in the mentioned categories and we experienced significant differences between the social word usage of the two groups. CONCLUSION - Our results confirmed that the recovery from alcohol addiction was related to the quality and quantity of person's social relations, what we can get relevant information from the frequency of social words in the autobiographies about, so the high frequency of the social words can be considered as a good predictor of recovery.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[“Boys as victims”, or the potential public health consequences of childhood physical abuse]

GYŐRFFY Zsuzsa, IMOLA Sándor, CSOBOTH Csilla, KOPP Mária

[BACKGROUND - Whereas the scientific literature regarding physical abuse primarily focuses on female victims, few studies have been performed on the childhood abuse of men. The aim of our study was to examine the potential effects of childhood physical abuse of men on adult mental health status. METHODS - Data of 4675 male participants of the Hungarostudy nation-wide representative survey were analyzed. RESULTS - Altogether almost 13% of our study group reported physical abuse by a parent or other significant person. Compared with men who did not report abuse, depression, suicidal thoughts and attempts were significantly more common among abused men. Smoking, alcohol- and drugabuse, anxiety disorders and sleeping disorders also had a higher occurence. Moreover, we established that abused men had a significantly greater risk of marital distress and were more likely to have fewer children. Interpretation of the results in a multivariate model indicated that physical abuse is a determinate and independent risk factor of depression, suicidal thoughts and attempts, smoking habits and alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Our results underline that childhood physical abuse can have a significant effect on numerous mental disorders and maladaptive behaviours in adulthood. However, the deeper understanding of the relationship between physical abuse and mental disorders necessitates further studies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Interdisciplinarity, workplace stress, holistic management]

SZABÓ Nóra, SZABÓ Gábor, HEGEDÛS Katalin

[INTRODUCTIONS – The physical and psychological condition of health care professionals dealing with the seriously ill is worse than that of those caring for not seriously ill patients. This may be due to the nurses' dissatisfaction, vital exhaustion, workplace stress, social support and the degree of professional and social adjudication. The aim of the survey is to comparatively investigate two groups dealing with the seriously ill – hospice nurses and nurses caring for elderly patients. Hypothesis: hospice nurses are in a more favourable position than nurses caring for elderly patients in terms of satisfaction, vital exhaustion, social support, the degree of workplace stress and professional and social acknowledgement as well. SUBJECTS AND METHODS – The survey was performed among hospice nurses (N=25) and nurses caring for elderly patients (N=50) using a self-assessment questionnaire. The inventory comprised questions related to demographical, professional and social acknowledgement and questionnaires on satisfaction, vital exhaustion, social support and workplace stress. RESULTS – In terms of social support hospice nurses are clearly in a more favourable position than those caring for elderly patients. Workplace stress is higher among nurses caring for elderly patients than that of hospice nurses thus the adverse effects of workplace stressors will more readily appear among nurses working with the elderly. CONCLUSION – The interdisciplinary approach of hospice, the acceptance and inclusion of professionals from fields other than nursing and medicine into the practical care may promote holistic care and the acceptance and acknowledgement of nurses. The greater social support may reduce the nurses’ degree of workplace stress and thus the adverse consequences of workplace stressors. Therefore in the future interdisciplinarity should be extended, communication between specialties should be encouraged within the care for the elderly and – as a matter of fact – on each level and field of the health care system.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Behavioral science approach to the nursing profession]

PIKÓ Bettina

[Study of psychosocial work environment in health care and in other non-profit organizations has not gotten priority so far. Workers in the units that are organized by inefficient management skills are more susceptible to the harmful psychological, health and social consequences of everyday work. The main goal of present analysis was to investigate nurses’ work conditions and their psychosomatic health as a part of the ongoing Nurse Study in Csongrád county. 420 nurses participated in the study among whom 218 were registered and 202 student nurses. Selfadministered questionnaire was used as a method of data collection which contained various items on sociodemographics, psychosomatic symptoms, other psychosocial health variables, job-related stress and emotional load, and social support from peers. Based on the results of the multiple regression analyses it can be concluded that nurses’ psychosomatic health was mainly influenced by the characteristics of their psychosocial work environment. The management should pay attention to establish team structures which could help in coping with job-related stress and providing social support.]