Lege Artis Medicinae

[About books]

NAGY Imre

SEPTEMBER 25, 1991

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1991;1(15)

[Book summary Dr. Rezső Szabó "Geriatrics in neuromedicine"]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[On pulmonary tuberculosis]

SCHWEIGER Ottó

[The author evaluates the epidemiological conditions of pulmonary tuberculosis in Hungary. The number of new cases decreases year after year. Being the disease infectious afterall, efforts must be continued against it adapted to the new epidemiological situation. This requires the collaboration of all the medical network systems as the pulmonological one is inefficient itself. Though the disease is rare, it cannot be forgotten and in certain cases tuberculosis must be borne in mind as well.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis]

BÖSZÖRMÉNI Miklós

[Since the number of tuberculous patients is constantly decreasing, the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is a new challenge for physicians. That produces a lifethreatening danger specially for old tuberculous patients. Primary infection – since the clinical tuber culosis of children practically disappeared in Hungary - can be established mostly on young people with general symptoms, who's tuberculin-reaction shows hyperergy. The specific etiology of pleurisy can be determined by the exclusion of other etiologies on young tuberculin-positive people, but a thoracoscopic biopsy may be needed. Tuberculous bronchadenitis is a rarity, but must be differentiated from sarcoidosis or malignant mediastinal lymph nodes. In infiltrative lung diseases, primary and se condary pneumonias (caused in first line by lung cancer) and pulmonary infarctions are much more frequent, than tbc. The most difficult is the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary diseases. The author warns against the too early application of aggressive diagnostic methods (BAL and especially lung biopsy by thoracotomy). He emphasizes in these situations the advantages of an antituberculous treatment without diagnosis (especially in old patients). In coin lesions the very specific transthoracic needle biopsy should be preferated. The author refers to the new researches objecting the rapid detection of BK in the sputum of paucibacillary patients, but is meaning, that the indirect ways of diagnosis mentioned in this paper would be necessary for a long time.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of tuberculosis in childhood]

ANDRÁSOFSZKY Barna

[Nowadays tuberculosis has already become a rare disease in childhood in Hungary but the danger of the infection is still present for the several thousand (over 3500) disease manifestations among adults. The main task of the pediatricians is prevention, however the disease should be borne in mind in case of unelucidated chronic cases. In suspicion of meningitis basilaris it is necessary to start the treatment at once. Until now the maintanence of the BCG vaccination by age groups (new-born, 11 and 18 years) was justified, but it needs further restriction due to the advance in epidemic situation.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Some problems and characteristics of pulmonary mycobacteriosis in hungary]

KOZMA Dezső, VINCZE Egon, DÁVID Sándor, KISHINDI Katalin, ALEXY György

[360 cases of pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by atypical mycobacteria were observed between 1980 and 1989. M. xenopi proved to be the most frequent pathogen (in 67% of the cases) followed by M. kansasii and M. avium intracellulare. The disease was common in urban-industrial areas. The yearly incidence of disease has not been increased during the observed period. 86% of patients were male with the mean age of 55 years. Underlying diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic obstructive lung disease were found frequently. The symptoms of the disease were uncharacteristic. Thin-wall cavities with the lack of an infiltrate appeared in 24% of the patients. Malignancy and pulmonary aspergillosis were the two more frequent concomitant diseases. The occurence of lung cancer and also other organ cancers were significant higher among these patients than in the normal population between 40–69 years of age. Findings of histopathology were indistinguishable from tuberculosis among M. kansasii cases. A relative lack of caseousiting necrosis, forced fibrosis, foreign body reaction and abortive granuloma formation appeared among M. xenopi and M. avium-intracellulare cases. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[An update on BCG vaccination]

NYERGES Gáborné, DRINÓCZY Mária

[Tuberculosis is still a serious and wide-spread disease affecting mainly people living under poor hygienic conditions. Double infections with HIV + M. tuberculosis, however, may worsen the epidemiological situation both in developing and highly developed countries. Since its introduction, BCG vaccine has undergone several changes regarding the production strain and other characteristics. Though, the effectivity of BCG vaccination has been often questioned, it is indisputable that the vaccine protects young children against the disease. In Hungary, lyophilised „Paris" BCG strain has been safely and successfully used for vaccinating new-borns and revaccinating children for 30 years. The tbc incidence of the population under 14 years of age has been very low. Due to the relatively high tbc incidence among adults and the unfavourable tendency in the epidemiology of tbc in the world, however, no changes in the present BCG vaccination schedule are advisable. Moreover revaccination regardless to the tuberculin status should be considered. ]

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[In memoriam Prof. Dr. Ferenc Garzuly (1937-2021)]

ILLÉS Zsolt, HAHN Katalin, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

[Ferenc Garzuly passed away after a long and productive life at the age of 84. He worked for almost 60 years at the Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital, where primarily led the laboratory of neuropathology and the department of neurology, but transferred to the department of pathology after his retirement. By authoring several books on rare diseases, he greatly enriched the case-based tea­ching approach in medicine. He described the Hun­garian type of transthyretin mutation causing the familial me­nin­go­cerebrovascular amyloidosis phenotype. The presentation of a special phenotype of Fabry disease associated with megadolichobasilar anomaly and a novel mutation in the alpha-galactosidase-A gene is also associated with his name. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[CONTROVERSIAL EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE: INTEGRITY AND TOXICITY]

KISS Róbert Gábor, BÉRES Bernát János

[Nitric oxide is a key molecule of the human body. Since its discovery, a library of books and papers have been published on its physiological and pathophysiological role. It is involved in almost all pathological processes. In healthy individuals nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the vascular regulation by protecting against atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke. In the central nervous system, nitric oxide in its function as a neurotransmitter is responsible for synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, memory and a number of neuroendocrine control mechanisms. Furthermore, during inflammation and host defense, macrophages and neutrophils produce nitric oxide that has antibacterial, antiviral, and tumour cell killing activity. In pathologic conditions, however, nitric oxide reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite that damages the enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, superoxide-dismutase, reduced glutathion and activates or inactivates signalling molecules. During ischaemia- reperfusion, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contribute to nitrative/nitrosative stress, DNAfragmentation and consequent polyADP-ribosepolymerase- 1 enzyme activation both in coronary thrombosis and ischaemic stroke.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[About Books]

FEJÉREGYHÁZI István

[A review of the book written by: László Tringer: "The Healing Conversation"]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[About books]

GRYNAEUS Tamás

[Herbalism - the basics of phytotherapy - Gábor Rácz, Erzsébet Rácz-Kotilla, László Gy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[About books]

NAGY Imre

[A review of the book written by Dr. Gaál Csaba : "Surgery"]