Hypertension and nephrology

[Not all young, athletic university students have optimal blood pressure. Results of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19)]

PATÓ Anna1, NÉMETH Zoltán2, JÁRAI Zoltán3, KOLLER Ákos1,3

JUNE 24, 2020

Hypertension and nephrology - 2020;24(3)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.24.014

[For about 100 years, it has been known that persistently high blood pressure (hypertension) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease deaths, such as major risk factors for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney and eye disease. Unfortunately, one of the characteristics of hypertension is that it remains undetected for a long time until damage to one or more organs has already occurred. Therefore, it is very important that systemic blood pressure is monitored from time to time, especially above 45 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension is more than 35% in the Hungarian population. Recent data have pointed out that hypertension may occur at a younger age, although at a lower frequency. Our studies were conducted in the context of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19), an international campaign that draws attention to hypertension and the lack of systematic screening at population level. We hypothesized that hypertension may occur in young, apparently healthy university students. The studies were conducted among students of the University of Physical Education (n = 33; 25 males, 8 females). The mean age was 24.3 years (20–34 years). To measure blood pressure, an automatic blood pressure monitor (Omron MIT5) was used, placed on individuals’ upper arms, as specified in the guidelines, in a relaxed, sitting position. The measurements were repeated three times at one-minute intervals and the average of the three measurements was statistically analyzed. Blood pressure values (mean ± SEM, averaged over 3 measurements) in the student population were systolic 121.9 ± 14.4 mmHg, diastolic 75.1 ± 9.1 mmHg, mean 90.7 ± 10.9 mmHg, and heart rate: 46.8 ± 5.3 mmHg. Although mean blood pressure was within the normal range, higher values were also found in some individuals. Systolic blood pressure fell by 33% due to elevated normal blood pressure, respectively of Grade 1 hypertension. These data confirmed our hypothesis that hypertension may occur at a young age, despite the fact that members of the study population exercise regularly, which is an important preventive factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. These results underscore the importance of regular blood pressure measurement in adolescents, which may reduce the global spread of hypertension and prevent the development of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, heart attack, renal failure and mental decline.]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Sportélettani Kutatóközpont, Testnevelési Egyetem, Budapest
  2. Morfológiai és Fiziológiai Tanszék ETK, Transzlációs Medicina Intézet, ÁOK, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  3. Kardiológiai Profil, Szent Imre Egyetemi Oktatókórház, Budapest

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Dear Reader]

KÉKES Ede, ALFÖLDI Sándor

Hypertension and nephrology

[Treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure]

SZLOVÁK Edina, SZILVESZTER Dolgos

[The prevalence of chronic renal failure and hypertension is steadily increasing worldwide. The risk of possible cardiovascular death in patient with advanced renal failure is greater than the risk of progression to end-stage renal failure. Therefore treating and achieving target blood pressure is important in order to slow renal function decline in parallel with cardiovascular risk reduction. However, guidelines do not specify a single blood pressure target to be achieved in patients with renal failure, but suggest evidence based, reno- and cardioprotective therapy. This paper summarizes the clinical practice of treating hypertension (drug and nondrug treatment, therapeutic algorithm, target value, effectiveness of therapy) in patients with chronic renal failure.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Covid-19 and the kidney]

PATÓ Éva, DEÁK György

[Covid-19 pandemy has emerged from Wuhan, China in December 2019. The infection affects not only the lung but other organs such as the kidney, as well. The relation between Covid-19 infection and the kidney is bidirectional. On one hand, Covid-19 infection may cause kidney damage in 50-75% of the cases resulting in proteinuria, haematuria and acute kidney injury (AKI). The etiology of AKI is multifactorial. Main pathogenic mechanisms are direct proximal tubular cell damage, sepsis-related haemodinamic derangement, citokine storm and hypercoagulability. The virus enters proximal tubular cells and podocytes via the ACE2 receptor followed by multiplication in the lysomes and consequential cell lesion. Histopathology shows acute tubular necrosis and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. AKI is a strong predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. On the other hand, the risk of Covid-19 infection and mortality is substantially increased in patients with chronic kidney disease – especially in those with a kidney transplant or on dialysis – due to their immunocompromised status. Among haemodialysis patients, infection may spread very easily due to the possibility of getting contacted in the ambulance car or at the dialysis unit. The mortality rate of patients on renal replacement therapy with Covid-19 infection is 20-35%. In order to avoid mass infection it is obligatory to employ preventive measures and implement restricions along with (cohors) isolation of infected patients. In Hungary, every dialysis or kidney transplant patient with Covid-19 infection should be admitted to dedicated Covid-19 wards.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Hypertension and Covid-19 – Part I. Significance of age, underlying diseases, and ACEI/ARB therapy in hypertension and co-morbidities during SARS-Cov2 infection]

KÉKES Ede, SZÉKÁCS Béla, NAGY Judit, KOVÁCS Tibor

[The appearance of the Covid-19 epidemic in different continents shows specific clinical features. Confirmed infected patients are detectable from approximately 30 years, with a maximum between 40 and 70 years of age. At the same time, however, a significant proportion of those who die from the infection come from patients over 65 years. The prevalence and mortality rates of the hypertensive population show a very similar formation. Based on the data collected, it is not surprising that hypertension as the underlying disease in the Covid- 19 epidemic is the first in all analysis. A more precise analysis clarified that it is not hypertension per se, but co-morbidities and complications of hypertension that play a primary role behind large-scale mortality in old age, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Data from China, North America, and Italy suggest that hypertension and diabetes – and in North America, pathological obesity – in infected patients actually only reflect the prevalence of these diseases in a given population. The presence of comorbidities (coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease) – based on multivariate logistic regression analysis – presents a more risk for severe clinical course and mortality. Some recent analyses have provided strong evidence that ACEI/ARB treatment does not pose a higher risk for the course or outcome of infection. Their administration is constantly needed in hypertension and comorbidities due to their organ protective and slowing the progression of diseases.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Systolic and diastolic blood pressure by height, BMI, gender and age between 14 and 18 years of age]

SZABÓ László, SCHEURING Noémi, GÁCSI Erika, KORMOS-TASI Judit

[The aim of the screening program was to investigate blood pressure levels in different ages according to obesity. Blood pressure, heart rate, body composition, bodyweight, height and BMI were assessed. 2202 adolescent (1326 girls, 876 boys) participated in the screening program. The mean systolic blood pressure of all screened adolescents was 126.34 ± 12.55 mmHg. Boy/girl values were 131.87 ± 13.59/117.49 ± 5.69 mmHg, p < 0.001. The mean diastolic blood pressure of all screened adolescents was 71.86 ± 8.74 mmHg. Boy/girl values were 72.61 ± 9.17/66.69 ± 5.04 mmHg, p < 0.001. The 50%, 90%, 95%, and 99% thresholds and cases for systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and the BMI and BodyFluid thresholds, detailed for 14–18 year olds, girls and boys, are tabulated. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was over 99% in 12 girls (14- year-olds), 39 (15), 42 (16), 33 (17), 5 (18) to height. SBP was over 99% in 17 boys (14-year-olds), 73 (15), 100 (16), 33 (17), 5 (18) to height. It is emphasized that systolic blood pressure (SBP) is > 99% in 12 girls (14 years), 39 (15), 42 (16), 33 (17), 5 (18) to body height. SBP > 99% for 17 boys (14 years), 73 (15), 100 (16), 33 (17), 5 (18) to body height. Elevated diastolic values were associated with elevated systolic values, but less occurred. The percentage of high blood pressure was more frequent among boys and girls who were in the overweight group (58.6% and 18.6%). Normal blood pressure is higher in overweight and obese adolescents and is a significant risk factor for developing high blood pressure in young adulthood.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]

VÁLYI Péter

[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Notes on the management of hypertension in chronic kidney disease ]

AMBRUS Csaba

[The prevalence of hypertension among pa­tients with chronic kidney disease is high, reaching more than 80%. Hypertension is both one of the main causes and also the most common consequence of chronic kidney disease. It is also a main factor responsible for the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Blood pressure control can improve patient outcomes, lower cardiovascular risk and slow down the progression of kidney dis­ease, irrespective of the underlying cause. The optimal therapy should therefore focus not only on blood pressure reduction but also on renoprotection. Basic understanding of the renal pathophysiology in hypertension and renal effects of various medications is of paramount importance. In this review, we summarized cornerstones of the antihypertensive therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease. The management of patients receiving kidney replacement therapies, such as hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or transplanta­tion requires special knowledge and expe­rience, therefore it is not discussed here. The aim of this review was to allow non-nephrologist physicians to take care of their kidney patients with more confidence and effectiveness.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of assessing subclinical organ damage in risk prediction of hypertensive patients]

GODINA Gabriella, JÁRAI Zoltán

[As the cardiovascular risk influences the quality and intensity of blood pressure lowering therapy, the goal blood pressure values and the frequency of medical control of hypertensive patients, as well as global risk assessment has an important role in the management of hypertension. In the last couple of years many data have been accumulated showing the poor prognostic value of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. This is the reason why recent Hungarian and international guidelines on the management of hypertension advise the screening for subclinical organ damage. Our goal was to summarize the importance of subclinical organ damage by discussing recently published literature on this topic. An overview has been made on the markers of vascular subclinical damage, like carotid atherosclerosis proved with carotid ultrasonography, peripheral arterial disease assessed with ankle-brachial pressure index measurements and vascular rigidity defined with pulse wave velocity measurements. The prognostic values of myocardial hypertrophy assessed with ECG and/or echocardiography and renal damage proved with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria are also discussed. Summing up what has been said so far, the assessment of subclinical organ damage has a role in cardiovascular risk prediction, however more randomized and prospective studies have to be performed to define the most suitable (i.e. the most reliable and the most cost-effective) markers for this purpose.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The effects of angiotensin receptor blockers on the nervous system in hypertension and dementia]

KOVÁCS Tibor

[The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most important mechanisms regarding the pathomechanism and treatment of hyprtension. The most of the elements of the RAS are found in the nervous system too. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is based on the inhibition of the RAS. ARBs might have a special role in the central nervous system because they do not decrease the production of angiotensin but inhibit its harmful effects mediated through the AT1 receptor while allowing the stimulation of AT2 receptors with resulting pleiotrophic actions. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for stroke and has a negative effect on cognitive functions. Antihypertensive treatment has an effect on the nervous system; in addition to the consequences of the reduced blood pressure, ARBs might provide additional advantages in stroke and dementia prevention.]