Hypertension and nephrology

[Chronic stress in the development of essential hypertension. Role of rilmenidine in the treatment of stress induced hypertension]


APRIL 22, 2022

Hypertension and nephrology - 2022;26(02)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.26.014

[Hypertension is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Several factors contribute to its development, including chronic stress, which may induce hypertension by increasing sympathetic activity. The signs of increasing sympathetic activity can be primarily detected in the initial phase of hypertension, which is characterized by the increase in cardiac output. In addition to the hemodynamic consequences (increase in cardiac output, tachycardia, coronary vasoconstriction, proarrhythmia), the increase in sympathetic activity has many harmful effects. Numerous metabolic (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia), structural and trophic effects (endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy), as well as thrombotic and humoral processes (procoagulation, enhancement of thrombocyte aggregation, sodium retention, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis) may develop and consequently damage body functions at many targets. Several different antihypertensive drug classes are available for reducing increased sympathetic activity, including peripheral alpha and beta blockers and centrally acting drugs. First generation antihypertensive drugs with central mechanisms of action (e.g. clonidine, guanfacine, alpha-methyldopa) is currently rarely administered and only for a few indications as they have a significant adverse events profile. Among centrally acting, second generation drugs, rilmenidine stimulates imidazoline-I1 receptors and thus beneficially influences mild or moderate hypertension that involves enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity.]


  1. Dél-budai Centrumkórház-Szent Imre Egyetemi Oktatókórház, Anyagcsere Központ, Hypertonia Centrum



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Novelties in the diagnosis and treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia]

RUESZ György Sándor, MIKES Bálint, CSIZEK Zsófia, HORVÁTH Orsolya

[X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common inherited cause of phosphate wasting. Its pathogenesis is complex, determined by the dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. We review herein the pathophysiology of XLH leading to multiple manifestations, stages of diagnosis and the treatment strategies. XLH is now in the scientific interest of pediatric nephrology, because a new treatment modality, burosumab became available in Hungary. Burosumab is a monoclonal antibody against fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). XLH is caused by the loss of function mutations in ”phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked” (PHEX) gene, which results enhanced secretion of the phosphaturic hormone FGF-23. The diagnosis of XLH is based on signs of rickets and/or osteomalacia and decreased growth velocity in association with hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting in the absence of vitamin D or calcium deficiency. Conventional treatment with oral phosphate supplementation together with active vitamin D (calcitriol or alfadiol) can improve bone metabolism, but only partial results can be achieved, and can promote side effects (nephrocalcinosis). The better understanding of the role of PHEX gene and FGF-23 levels in the pathomechanism helped to identify therapeutic options more properly. With monoclonal antibody therapy against FGF-23 the disease process can be interrupted, and complications can be prevented if the therapy is initiated in time. However, deformities already leading to disability cannot regress completely during burosumab therapy, highlighting the need of early diagnosis and the start of the biological treatment before complications.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Cilostazol improves quality of life and lower limb functional capacity in lower extremity arterial disease regardless of age and gender – new results of the SHort-tERm cIlostazol eFFicacy and quality of life (SHERIFF) study]


[Intermittent claudication has a significant negative impact on the patients’ quality of life. Revascularization procedures and noninvasive medical therapie scan improve walking capacity. Cilostazol has IA recommendation for the treatment of intermittent claudication (IC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-month cilostazol treatment on the health related quality of life and on the lower limb functional capacity in women (F) and men (M), in patients under 65 years of age (Y) and among patients 65 years of age or older (O) with intermittent claudication in the clinical practice. The study was a multicenter, non-interventional trial, 812 lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) patients (Fontaine II stage, mean age: 67.17 years, male/female: 58.25/41.75%, 506 patients aged ≥65 years) were enrolled, who received cilostazol (50 or 100 mg b.i.d.) for three months. Quality of life was evaluated with the EQ- 5D-3L questionnaire, functional capacity with the WELCH questionnaire. Walking distances, ankle-brachial index were measured at baseline and after 3-month. Upon conclusion of the study, the EQ-5D index improved (baseline: F [female] –0.49±0.23, M (male –0.44±0.22, Y (age <65 years) –0.45±0.21, O (age ≥65 years) –0.47±0.23; 3rd month: –0.27±0.18, –0.25±0.18, –0.25±0.18, –0.26±0.18; respectively, p<0.0001) and there was a significant increase in the WELCH score as well (baseline: F 18±13, M 20±14, Y 21±14, O 18±13; 3rd month: 31±18, 32±18, 32±19, 31±17; respectively, p<0.0001). Both pain-free and maximal walking distance increased: F 60.94%, (median: +50.26%), 49.57%, (median: + 42.86%), M 50.22%, (median: +50%), 37.7%, (median: + 33,33 %), Y 54,35 %, (median: + 56,2%), 36.78%, (median: +42.86%), O 54.62%, (median: +50%), 46.29% (median: +33.33%); respectively (p<0.001). Three months of cilostazol treatment improved quality of life and lower limb functional capacity in claudicant patients regardless of age and gender. The WELCH questionnaire is a useful tool in clinical practice for the evaluation of intermittent claudication treatment.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Echocardiographic judgment of the left ventricular remodelling and heart failure’s types]

HATI Krisztina

[The heart responds to the damage to the heart muscle with various changes that are regulated by complex processes. If the harm is irreversible, changes that begin as an adaptation can become chronic and permanently worsen heart function. The author details below the pathological remodelling of the left ventricle that can lead to heart failure. It covers the types of heart failure based on the latest recommendations and presents the echocardiographic examination methods that can be used to assess the diastolic, systolic and right ventricular function of the heart.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of white-coat and masked hypertension: novelties]


[White-coat hypertension is a heterogenous clinical entity includes patients with lower and higher cardiovascular risk. It has a relative benign prognosis if it is not associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. It can increase, however, significantly the risk of new onset sustained hypertension and diabetes. The risk of cardiovascular events is unequivocally higher than that of normotensive patients, according to recent studies. Therefore, the proper evaluation of cardiovascular risk has utmost importance in white-coat hypertensive patients to determine the adequate treatment and follow-up. Masked hypertension, in the other hand, is not a benign phenotype, therefore regular screening with out-of office blood pressure measurements and pharmacological blood pressure lowering therapy is mandatory.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The efficiency of angiotensin receptor blocker/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment in heart failure 2021 ARNI, VIDI, VICI…]


[A new compound ARNi (valsartan/sacubitril) – as a member of a new pharmacoterapeutic group – has several clinical evidences almost in the whole spectrum of heart failure, especially in case of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertension. The most important and essential evidence based studies and the efficiency of the treatment with ARNI in heart failure have been demonstrated in this overview. Due to the favorable results of the studies the recommendations of ARNI indication are increasingly dominant in the clinical guidelines. The usage provides effective, safe therapeutic help for the poor life expectancy heart failure patients in the everyday clinical practice. The treatment is already available in Hungary.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer and non-Alzheimer dementias


In aging societies, the morbidity and mortality of dementia is increasing at a significant rate, thereby imposing burden on healthcare, economy and the society as well. Patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and life expectancy are greatly determined by the early diagnosis and the initiation of available symptomatic treatments. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have been the cornerstones of Alzheimer’s therapy for approximately two decades and over the years, more and more experience has been gained on their use in non-Alzheimer’s dementias too. The aim of our work was to provide a comprehensive summary about the use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimers’s dementias.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Hypertension, COPD and COVID-19. Focus on antihypertensive therapy]


[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very common comorbidity of hypertension and it is often unrecognised by physicians. The factors involved in the pathomechanism of both diseases should be realised when choosing treatment. Among factors, hypoxia, increased tone of sympathetic nervous system and activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should primarily be considered. Vascular wall damage and endothelial dysfunction has an important role in both conditions. The goals of treatment are elimination of risk factors, optimizing the blood pressure, the consequential prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular, renal and pulmonary damage; finally prolonging the patients’ life and improving their quality of life as well. Both hypertension and COPD significantly worsen the condition of COVID-19 patients since they increase the severity of the disease and the rate of in-patients’ and their mortality. In the treatment of hypertension among COPD and COVID-19 patients there must be emphasized the medication inhibiting of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, such as angiotensin-converting en­zyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II AT1 re­cep­tor antagonists. Special attention concerned the beneficial effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. Other antihypertensive drugs (calcium channel blockers, thiazide-like diu­retics, high selectivity β1 receptor antagonists) may supplement the treatment if necessary. Long-acting β2 receptor agonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists and inhalation corticosteroids may be administered in double or triple combination also in hypertension and COPD as well. It is important to note, that statin therapy and also vitamin D3 improve the condition of COVID-19 patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome with amitriptyline]


[Introduction - Complex regional pain syndrome is a di­stressing neuropathic pain condition without known etiology and evidence based treatment. Case presentation - Here a posttraumatic severe case of complex regional pain syndrome is presented, successfully treated by amitriptyline monotherapy. Amitriptyline is one of the most effective evidence based treatments of peri­pheral diabetic neuropathic pain and other neuropathic pain syndromes. Discussion - Amitriptyline seems to be effective to decrease pain, autonomic and motor symptoms in chronic regional pain syndrome. Conclusion - Controlled trials may be warranted to test the effectiveness of amitriptyline in complex regional pain syndrome.]